Welcome to Hong Kong War Diary - a project that documents the 1941 defence of Hong Kong, the defenders, their families, and the fates of all until liberation. This page is updated monthly with a record of research and related activities. Pages on the left cover the books that have spun off from this project, and a listing of each and every member of the Garrison. Comments, questions, and information are always welcome. Tony Banham, Hong Kong: firstname.lastname@example.org
Brian Gill (courtesy Ian Gill), Canadian shoulder flashes (via Craig Mitchell), Fred Gibson (via Ron Taylor, UK) James Flynn with Charlie Price RRoC, Takliwa sinking, Flynn third from left second row from bottom with other Punjabis (all courtesy Patrick Flynn) RA neck flash (courtesy Philip Cracknell), HKVDC Danes (courtesy Frode Olsen), HKVDC at Cenotaph (courtesy Ron Taylor, HK)
I have often idly wondered which of Hong Kong’s own wartime veterans made the biggest contribution to the post-war world. Clague and Pearce, of course, became huge Hong Kong businessmen following the escapes as POWs and service in the BAAG. Ride returned to the University, was knighted and became Vice Chancellor. Robert Thompson of Z Force became one of the world’s leading experts on counter insurgency (advising the Americans in Vietnam, getting knighted too, and writing ‘Make for the Hills’). William Anderson became the CEO of a huge company – NCR - writing the book ‘Corporate Crisis’. Clifford Matthews became emeritus professor of chemistry at the University of Illinois, and was the first to propose that life on earth might have originated from material brought by comets. But this month I also learned something of the next generation: the son of one of Hong Kong’s wartime evacuees was until recently the CEO of HSBC!
30Woke to see thick fog, unfortunately on the day that I had arranged to take the Hong Kong Club walkers around the Peak for a talk about the wartime experiences in the city which is normally clearly visible below. We had to use our imaginations somewhat… Of the twenty signed up for the walk, ten braved the dripping conditions and we actually managed to spend an enjoyable morning.
29 John Horridge – whose mother (pregnant with him at the time) was a Shanghai evacuee who passed through Hong Kong on the way to Australia in 1940 – got in touch sending a very interesting couple of pages from the SCMP of October 1940. John’s father escaped from Shanghai just before the Pacific War began, but unfortunately his ship was diverted to Manila and he spent the war interned there.
27 While preparing this month’s website update, I counted the number of photos that I had received that merited display (bearing in mind that in the current format there are only ten slots available). It was 46. That shows what a seasonal topic this is. There are months when I don’t even get half of that, but interest always peaks at the end of November and beginning of December. It’s no surprise that the length of text this month also broke my guideline limit of 2,500 words. 27 “Congratulations, you have successfully completed your studies. The UNSW Canberra Higher Degree Committee (HDC08/14) has resolved that your thesis merits the award of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.” Well, there you go. Five years of work finally paid off. And I think it’s fitting that after all these studies of the POWs, my subject (‘The evacuation of British women and children from Hong Kong to Australia in 1940’) was actually about their families.
25Continuing his investigation of Danes in Wartime Hong Kong, Frode kindly sent me a copy of the 8 December 1941 Marriage Record for Bramall Burgess and Sessan Lilian Fjord Christensen – a wedding I mentioned briefly in Not The Slightest Chance. 25 My wife and I had dinner this evening with Elizabeth Ride at the Helena May. She is visiting as she often does at this time of year, doing further work on her father’s papers.
22 Leslie Wright’s (Middlesex, Lisbon Maru) niece got in touch providing several interesting photos, including one of Wright apparently on board a wartime ship (illustrated). She notes: “Leslie didn’t speak of his experience, and couldn’t sleep when he returned home– finding the darkness too frightening. Apparently he also went over the road to his local barbers for a hot towel shave one day wearing only his pyjamas. Clearly there could never be any way that people back home could ever understand, besides which they had been coping with their own challenges of rationing and the doodlebugs.” He married in 1946, but: “Sadly their relationship didn’t succeed and Leslie volunteered for a posting in the Gold Coast where he met his death in a traffic accident 14 November 1948. So sad that he survived the war only to be killed so soon afterwards.” 22 It’s fascinating what you learn. Bob Tatz pointed out that just after Hong Kong was invaded: “Sun Yat-Sen’s widow and her sister were escorted to their waiting plane by Cohen” for evacuation from Kai Tak, but we weren’t sure which sister this was. But I recalled that she was the KMT Finance Minister (H.H. Kung’s) wife, and Bob knew that Kung’s wife was Soong Ai-ling. 21Dave Deptford asked me for some basic information about Stanley Internee Walter Ernest Bryant Howell of the Hong Kong Police Force. Oddly, though, the details in the Stanley lists are sparse to say the least. They almost imply that he spent a period outside the camp. Can anyone explain? 21 Had a very interesting lunch at Hong Kong’s Country Club at Deepwater Bay today to discuss the local wartime history.
19Ron Taylor (HK) asked for help to identify the gentleman on the right of a photo he has. The other three are (R to L): Arthur May, Jack Edwards and Maximo Cheng. Bill Lake and I reckon the photo might have been taken in December 1991 when so many people came over for the Sai Wan service to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the start of Hong Kong’s war. Although the man on the right looks very familiar, I can’t place him. Can anyone help? 19 Janet Sykes kindly sent me a copy of her grandfather’s (John Gray Robertson, a radiographer at Kowloon Hospital) diary. One of the many interesting things therein was this notice that he saw when interned in the Kowloon Hotel in January 1942 before being moved to Stanley: “Notice Proceedings of a meeting held in room 3O1 on Sunday 18th January 1942. President, Dr. Selwyn Clarke, D.M.S. & Messrs. T. B. Wilson, Gate, Shields, Manners, Drs. Uttley & Smalley, Mr. Okomoto and a Japanese Officer. (1) All those in the Kowloon Hotel, will be moved to Stanley in a week or ten days, where they will be joined by the civilian internees now in Hong Kong, a total of about 15OO. (2). British, American and other nationalities will be housed separately, and it is requested that groups should be made up of about twenty people. (a) Married couples, married couples with children, (c) Single Men, (d) married women with children, but without husbands, and single women. (3) Arrangements will be made for a number of families resident in Kowloon to visit their homes to collect commodities, such as blankets and clothes etc. but not furniture other than folding camp beds. Separate arrangements will be made for residents of Hong Kong. (4) As there is no electric lights in Stanley at present, oil lamps & candles should be collected, also kitchen utensils. Improved conditions are promised and all will be able to go out in the fresh air. The food situation will be improved and a more varied diet will be provided. An improvement in changing large dollar notes is promised and the banks are expected to open soon. Internees should take such tinned foods as they can carry.”
18 I received an email today asking about the repatriation of the RNDYP, specifically whether I knew: “if they got paid after liberation for the time spent in captivity and when they would have been demobilised.” I could answer such a question for the army, but not the navy. Does anyone have this documented?
17Researchers worldwide have been shocked to hear of plans to close the IWM library and Explore History Learning Centre as a cost cutting exercise. You can use this link to see what is being proposed at the IWM and, if you wish to, sign the petition. 17 Philip Cracknell has written another interesting article, this time about George Kennedy-Skipton.
16 Richard Morgan kindly set me photos of the medals and service documents of Albert Dungey (HKDDC).
15 Jack Chalker passed away today. While not one of the Hong Kong POWs, his famous but infamous sketches of The Railway defined that experience for a generation.
14 Frank Russell’s (Royal Engineers) niece got in touch. Russell was reported missing 'east side of Wong Nai Chung Gap'. If that's correct, it would have been around where the Cricket Club is today, or possibly on the slopes of Jardine's Lookout. 14 Walter Hall’s (Middlesex, Lisbon Maru) great niece got in touch.
8 My annual royalty cheque arrived this morning from Hong Kong University Press, and I thought people might be interested in the fabulous returns from the thousands of hours it took me to write my three full books on the general topic of Hong Kong’s war. This year, 77 copies of Not The Slightest Chance were sold, plus 56 of The Sinking of The Lisbon Maru, and (coincidentally) 56 also of We Shall Suffer There. On top of this, an unspecified number of eBooks were also downloaded – which is good to see. Monetarily, it’s enough for a case of moderately good wine (provided the wife chips in with the other half…). So for those who assume this is my living, I assure you that it’s not. On the other hand, considering that the last of these books was published in 2009, it’s not so bad to still be earning half a case of (cheap) wine’s worth each year! (PS As mentioned a couple of months ago, websites have been advertising some of these books for up to 4,000 pounds each. Don’t buy them at that price – or anything like it, because if the demand is still there, HKUP will simply print more.) 8 Up in the hills, another field telephone was found today, in much better condition than that recovered last month. Two Canadian shoulder flashes also turned up in another location, as did a Royal Artillery cap badge, a well-preserved RA collar badge, and a broken HKSRA shoulder flash. 8 Philip Cracknell posted a very interesting new blog entry on the battle for Sanatorium Gap. 8 Henry Ching kindly let me know the bad news that Solomon Bard of the HKVDC passed away last night (the night of 7/8th November) in a Syndey hospital. He notes that “he was the Honorary Colonel of the RHKR (The Volunteers), 1982-84 and again in 1990. In 1941 he was a lieutenant in the Field Ambulance of the HKVDC and was at a medical post on Mt Davis, narrowly escaping being killed when a shell landed near him but did not explode. He spent the occupation years as a POW in Sham Shui Po Camp. Apart from his activities as a Volunteer, he was a medical doctor, a musician and orchestral conductor, and took a keen interest in the history of Hong Kong. He was much respected by all who knew him.” He was also the first person I ever interviewed face to face about their wartime experiences.
7 Ron Taylor in the UK very kindly sent me a photo of Frederick William Gibson, Middlesex, who died on the Lisbon Maru.
6Andrew Harpham, on the FEPOW Community site, shared a copy of the ‘Guard Your Tongue’ leaflet, that essentially forbade ex-FEPOWs from discussing their experiences once they returned home. There was another pamphlet issued later, called "Settling Down in Civvy Street", but we haven’t yet located a copy. 6 Following his successful research into the Dane Kaj Soren Kjar’s (HKVDC) fate, Frode Olsen is now turning his attention to the other Danish members of the wartime organisation. It seems there were more than we had thought; three others also worked for the Danish East Asia Company: Kurt Wilkens, born in 1921, was killed 25 December 1941 close to Stanley, Jorgen Vibe Christensen, born 1917 was taken as POW, and the head of the Danish EAC Mr. Mogens Pagh (who due to his business responsibilities did not volunteer and escaped Hong Kong later). He included a photo of these people (left to right: Kurt Wilkens, Mrs. Pagh, Director Mogens Pagh and Kaj Soren Kjar.) Other Danes are believed to include: Kaj Vestergaard Petersen, who in 1941 worked as a salesperson for another Danish company in Hong Kong “Nordic Feathers”, Captain Alec Damsgaard, and merchant seaman Holger Christiansen. To this list, Ron Taylor (HK) added another: Lance Bombardier 4354 Neils Orskov Christensen of 2nd Battery of the HKVDC who died in captivity on 18.12.42. Frode’s research into the latter has already turned up his “very detailed diary of more than 160 pages covering from the summer of 1941 till December”. 6 A somewhat sensational article in the Daily Mail, following the murder of two Indonesian ladies in Hong Kong by a British banker, at least mentioned Stanley Prison’s wartime role.
3 James Flynn’s (2/14th Punjabis) son got in touch. He notes that his mother: “wife of Major James Lough Flynn (retired from the Royal Artillery in 1951, a Captain with the 14th Punjab at the time of Hong Kong), passed away October 23rd, just before her 93rd birthday.” He also kindly sent me a number of photos of the loss of the Takliwa (it ran aground as it was returning the Indian ex-POWs on 15 October 1945), and Punjabi reunions in 1947 (Flynn is third from left in the second row from bottom). Although officially everyone on the Takliwa was recorded as being rescued by the Sainfoin, four Indian ex-POWs are recorded as being lost on 15 November 45 with no known graves. I suspect the real date of loss was 15 October 45. The family moved to Canada after the war (Flynn was a good friend of the Price officer brothers, John and Charles of the Royal Rifles), and he also sent the cover of an original forty-four page listing of all the Royal Rifles and Winnipeg Grenadiers veterans prepared for the 25th Anniversary Memorial, Toronto, 1970.
2 From Philip Cracknell, responding to last month’s notes on Ken Oliver: “Lt Landsbert (HKRNVR) writes ‘we (he and Goldenberg) were subsequently involved in the fighting in and around Repulse Bay Hotel. On 22nd Dec it was decided to evacuate that area and orders were so given by OC Troops Major Templer RA in conjunction with Lt Cdr Swetland MWO to be carried out around midnight. The Japanese were covering Island Road, and a route was mapped out to cut across the rough, hilly ground and join Island Road as near as possible to Stanley View. I was in the same party as Goldenberg, and W/Os Dallow and Oliver. For some reason the party became disorganized in the darkness between the Lido and the Island Road Bridge, at which point we were fired upon by Japanese armed with Machine guns. The party scattered and I have not seen or heard of Goldenberg since, nor of Dallow or Oliver’. (Note from Lt Landsbert. ‘The party of which I had charge got through to Stanley without mishap. (however afterwards we found) We lost five Warrant Officers on the night of 22nd December namely Goldenberg, Dallow, Oliver, Gibbs and Biggs. As far as I know there has been no definite confirmation of their deaths beyond the fact that a search party was said to have seen several bodies of dead naval officers on the hillside below Island Road’ (Note by Lt A R Brown) (HKRNVR files).”
1 Ian Gill kindly sent me a photo of his brother Brian, who died in Stanley Camp in May 1944. I should get a copy laminated, and place it by his grave there. Barbara Anslow once noted: “Brian Gill, [was] drowned in a freshwater container at the beach, aged about 4; the RC priests made him a coffin out of a drawer of their chest of drawers; the sides within were covered with crimped-up white silk (from someone's dress); I saw them planing a piece of wood to form the top.” 1 Richard Hide, referring to last month, notes: “N.L Smith’s voyage on the Ulysses is well documented in “Hong Kong Full Circle 1939-1945” by Alexander Kennedy, late O/C MTB 09 of the 2nd MTB Flotilla Hong Kong. After failing to get a publisher Kennedy self-published five hundred copies.” This is very true, and in fact I have two copies of Kennedy’s book – and am hoping one day to have five, cornering 1 percent of the market. But Richard added something that I didn’t know: “Rachel, N.L Smith’s daughter was Kennedy’s fiancé, Kennedy escaped with the Chan Chak party on Christmas Day and eventually came in on the same Tide as the Smith’s at Glasgow after they had gone round the world in opposite directions. They were engaged soon after.”
November 1st, 2014 Update
Eileen 'Jimmie' Begg, and Eileen with family (courtesy Anne Carter), Greg Leck (author) Foord memorial (courtesy Martin Heyes), James Hart (courtesy Archie Hart), George MacDonell's latest (author) Field Telephone (courtesy Craig Mitchell), Ken Oliver and son Bryan (courtesy Jilly Sutton), B24s over Hong Kong (USAAF)
I sometimes mention to people that this project began as a discovery of bullets on Hong Kong’s hillsides, and slowly morphed into a study of the people who fired them (or were fired at) and their families. Certainly these days it is the human story that dominates my research. This month has added several important examples: the first contact with the family of one of the nurses murdered at St Stephen’s, contact with a family whose son enlisted under a false name to serve with his brother – both then being lost on the Lisbon Maru, a photo of a naval volunteer with his children on the beach where later he would meet his death, and the annual contact with the family of James Hart who survived the Eucliffe massacre and is now aiming for his hundredth year. To put these in context, from another continent and another war we have a victim’s bedroom preserved untouched for almost one hundred years. I learned slowly that war’s only legacy is grief, and this October illustrates that supremely well.
29John Lawson (Brigadier Lawson’s son) let me know that he recently visited Hong Kong and saw the well-named Lawson Room at the Canadian Consulate here. 29 Brian Edgar let the Stanley Group know about a new book. I bought an electronic copy, but haven’t yet read it. 29 George ‘Ken’ Oliver’s (HKRNVR) granddaughter got in touch. She wanted to know more about how he met his end, but all I could tell her was that he was with the Aberdeen Mine Watching Station, and most probably disappeared around 23 December after evacuating from the Repulse Bay Hotel. The CWGC records simply say he was lost in the Repulse Bay area. He may have been shot on the beach as he left the tunnel, or he may have been picked up with others and marched away to be massacred at Eucliffe. I have yet to find an eyewitness report to his fate. She also kindly sent me a set of photos, including some of Ken with his children on what appears to be Repulse Bay beach in happier times.
28My younger son was doing a project about turning points in Hong Kong’s history, and I provided the famous photo of the formation of USAAF B24s bombing Hong Kong. I’ve always wanted to get the original full resolution version, as many interesting landmarks – including of course Sham Shui Po POW Camp – are also visible.
26 The first Hong Kong Club Walk of the new season! We had 15 people on the ‘Tea and Bullets’ route, which gently follows the length of Bowen Road looking down on the scene of the fighting in Wanchai, Causeway Bay, Happy Valley, and Wong Nai Chung Gap. 26 Greg Leck let me know that Suzannah Linton’s book on the Hong Kong War Crimes Trials was published at the end of last year. I missed that.
25 I heard from the FEPOW Community that the whole of WO392 (the roster of British POWs in Japan or Japanese-occupied territories) is now online here. It’s a bit fiddly to use, but at least it’s there. 25 Brian Edgar has added a very interesting article about Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke on Gwulo.
24 I was asked whether Edward Arthur Bull RAOC 7584496 was a founder member of the Far Eastern Prisoner of War Association in Hong Kong. Does anyone know? 24 I heard back from Robert Taylor’s family (see August), via Hugh Farmer. I had mentioned that Mr Taylor was lucky in being unscathed when a bomb hit his wartime home –Stanley’s Bungalow C. Apparently I was wrong. The blast that killed the other inhabitants actually blew him bodily through the window, which no doubt saved his life but left him with severe back injuries. 24 A friend of Allan Webster’s (Middlesex, Lison Maru) family got in touch, and I was able to send him a photo of Mr Webster’s name on the Sai Wan Memorial. (He had seen this article on Michael Hurst’s web site).
22Mike Nelson (see last month) kindly sent a photo (illustrated) of his father, Thomas Nelson (RA, who survived the Lisbon Maru) and evacuated older brother Peter Nelson. 22 Robert Dunlop’s (HKVDC) grandson got in touch. Mr Dunlop was of course wounded outside the North Point Power Station. His wife Edith was interned in Stanley.
18 A friend of the Woodward family (William Woodward was a Stanley Internee) got in touch. Margaret Woodward was evacuated, but I don’t know where their three children (Dorothy Ellen Lucy Woodward - born ca 1925 in Hong Kong, Margaret Joan Woodward - born ca 1930 in England when they were on leave, and Elizabeth Anne Woodward - born ca 1932 in Hong Kong) spent the war years as they are not mentioned in my records. I suspect they went to Australia too, as this family matches the demographics of a group that I believe are missing from my records. 18 Martin Heyes sent me this very nice link to a timeline of Pathe news clips about Hong Kong.
16George MacDonell (ex Sergeant of D Company, Royal Rifles of Canada) very kindly sent me a copy of his new book ‘They Never Surrendered’ about the Allied POWs who defied their captors in Hong Kong and Japan. I haven’t seen Mr MacDonell for a few years but I have unlimited respect for him, and would highly recommend his first book ‘One Soldier’s Story’ – not just for the honest and remarkable coverage of the war years, but also for what he did (through sheer determination) with his life in the years after.
15 Dave Deptford let me know that Thomas Murray’s (Royal Scots and a Lisbon Maru survivor) medals are for sale on eBay.
13With the cooler weather now upon us, the usual sleuths have been up in the hills where they today found an almost complete British Field Telephone.
10 Martin Heyes recently took the nephew (plus his wife) of Private Frank Foord of the Winnipeg Grenadiers, around Wong Nai Chung Gap, Saiwan Cemetery and Stanley, and kindly sent me a photo of a memorial to him, which is maintained by the family.
9 “Jimmie” Begg’s family was kind enough to send me a photo of her. They also note that her husband ‘Tooti’ Begg, HKVDC, was known as Tooti because of his false teeth. They added that the extended family had suggested that Jimmie evacuate to Australia, but Tooti had been confident that he could look after her if anything happened. They also sent a photo of Jimmie (first left at front), Tooti (second from left at back), with my correspondent on the ground near Jimmie, and her brother on the bicycle and her mother on the right hand end of the picture. She added: “My brother was packed off to school in England when he was about eight so I think the picture would have been taken in about 1937 or 1938. The family was in Chungking in 1937 and home leave in 1938 so I am guessing it was Chungking.”
8 Archie Hart was kind enough to send me a photo of his father James Hart, RASC, who will be 99 in January and is hoping to make his ‘ton’. Not bad for a man who (as regular readers of this site will know) was left for dead with seven bayonet wounds in the Eucliffe massacre.
7Charles and Robert William’s (both Royal Scots, Lisbon Maru) nephew got in touch. He notes: “One of the brothers was there under his own name, Richards, was a Sergeant I believe and is buried in Hong Kong, the other, while serving in the Army, but in a different unit to his brother, deserted and then re-enlisted under an assumed name so he could serve with his brother both were taken prisoner together and are known to have been on Lisbon Maru at the time it was sunk.” In fact both are memorialized in Hong Kong, though neither body was recovered. The family didn’t know what name Charles had enlisted under, but with a little sleuthing I was able to discover that it was Wilson. I had a note in my files that no one of that name was mentioned in POW Camp lists, and the CWGC entry showed that his parents were Richards.
6 Eileen Margaret ‘Jimmie’ Begg’s (HKVDC Nursing Detachment) niece got in touch. She notes: “It took me years of searching through libraries before I found out what happened to her. That would have been in the late 70s. I found the book by Oliver Lindsay and I also found The Fall of Hong Kong by Tim Carew which was written in the 60s. I still have the books. I heard my mother when she received a telegram about my aunt (Auntie ‘Jimmie’). I don’t remember whether I was ten at that time, but it is something I have never forgotten – the pain, agony and shock of her distress were very hard to absorb by a child. I could not do anything to help her. She never spoke about it and would never return to Hong Kong. She was born in Shanghai in 1905 and my father was born in Tientsin. All the Berthet and Cumming and Jameson families arrived in and were then born in China from 1862 onwards.” I have always wondered about the three nurses, Mrs Begg, Buxton, and Smith, and after so many years it is quite unsettling to suddenly make contact with one of their families. Mrs Buxton had a daughter called Patricia, but I have yet to discover what became of her (Mr Henry Buxton, HKVDC, was also killed).
4I returned from a business trip to San Francisco, went home and changed, and then immediately went to see Hong Kong’s famous protesters, take some photos, and chat to the students. As I walked away, who should I bump into but historian Greg Leck (author of Captives of Empire - see last month) who I thought I wouldn’t be able to meet on this visit. We had a good chat.
3 In answer to last month’s question, Dave Deptford confirmed that the HKPF revoked their militia status – according to the covering paper to the HKPF War Diary – on the afternoon of 20 December 1941: “when the Commissioner (Pennefather-Evans) drafted a note for The Governor, subsequently signed.” 3 Geoffrey Emerson noted: “In HK at the moment are two ladies from Australia whose aunts were in Stanley Camp. One aunt, Sheila Maria Haynes, left a number of mementoes, and three days ago, Judy and sister Susan presented these to St Stephen's College for the Heritage Gallery there. Philip Cracknell has done one of his fine blogs about Sheila and her husband, Patrick Cullinan, a policeman, who were married in Camp on 11th August 1945.” Apparently the Heritage Gallery has now had more than 5,000 visitors.
2On the Stanley Group, Michael Martin asked about resources covering the ‘out of camp’ experiences of third nationals in Hong Kong during the occupation. Brian Edgar pointed him at the very interesting Pio-Ulski site, which also exhibits one of the 29 August 1945 letters of thanks from the POW senior officers.
1After we had established the date of the Anhui’s departure from Hong Kong (see last month), Philip Cracknell pointed out that the ship N.L. Smith actually departed on was the Ulysses (see the original question in August). The foolish thing is that I knew this already, as it formed part of my research into the evacuation of Hong Kong. Sadly I quite often Google things these days, only to find the answers in my own work…
October 1st, 2014 Update
McCombe servicing Moth, and POW Camp sketch (courtesy Brian McCombe), Barclay Medals (courtesy DNW via Dave Deptford) Inglis homage (courtesy Ian Inglis), RSM Ford (courtesy Teresa Gilliam-Hill), Hyde-Lay family (courtesy Jill Fell) Bernard Ward (courtesy Lynda Winter), Maltby letter (courtesy Elizabeth Ride), Stanley pillow (courtesy Ian Gill)
The end of September is typically when Hong Kong’s best weather starts. For an hour this morning I sat on our balcony watching the world go by (while the kids’ stupid rabbit nibbled my toes). At a time like this it’s still a wonderful place to live, and the willingness of those – more than seventy years ago now – to risk their lives in its defence becomes a little more understandable.
26Philip Cracknell has written another of his excellent blogs, this time about a central character in the British ARP - Wing Commander Alfred Steels-Perkins (he was a former Deputy Director of ARP in the UK who had complied, together with General Pritchard and Wing Commander Hodsoll, the official ARP books issued by the British Government). I am reasonably familiar with the family as his wife and children were evacuated. 26 I mentioned the Nelson family to Ron Brooks, whose father was a Master Gunner with the same Royal Artillery regiment (12th Coastal). He kindly sent a group photo of his father with other senior RA NCOs, and also one of him and his brother as children in 1940 together with a friend called ‘Ian Wilson’. The most likely Ian Wilson is Ian G. Wilson born 13.9.30, son of Lieutenant George Wilson, RAOC.
25 I had hoped to meet up again today with Greg Leck, author of the enormously impressive work ‘Captives of Empire’ as I hadn’t seen him for a few years and he was passing through Hong Kong on the way back from Beijing. Unfortunately some annoying passport issues prevented us from meeting.
24Via Jim Trick of the HKVCA I received an interesting question from the Royal Hong Kong Police Association about the swearing in of Hong Kong Police as militia in December 1941. I recall seeing this mentioned in the South China Morning Post – perhaps the edition of December 8 itself – but will have to check. On about December 20 they were de-sworn, but I’m not sure where the authoritative record of that might reside. 24 Thomas Nelson’s (RA, Lisbon Maru) younger son got in touch while visiting Hong Kong. Nelson’s older son and wife had been evacuated to Melbourne.
23 Ralph Reimers kindly sent me a photo of Joseph Hurst (illustrated) looking like something out of The Cruel Sea! Probably not a man to pick a fight with… 23 Martin Heyes kindly sent a copy of Stanley internee June Cheape's memoirs of Hong Kong 1941 - 45, with reference to her time in the camp.
22Concerning Elizabeth Ride’s question about the Anhui (see last month) Jenifer and Philip Burton kindly sent me this extract from Will Sprague’s diary: “We fell to talking of events a year ago this being the equivalent Sunday that we were mobilised. I was on the ‘Ulysses’ that morning & came ashore with Morley Wright & something in the air caused us to have a few beers together in the H.K. Hotel before finding out whether or not mobilisation had been ordered. The day before (Saturday 6th) I had seen cousin Evelyn with her baby on the Anhui, & they had sailed at 7pm. I now know that both ships got safely to Singapore via Manila, but that Anhui had a near miss by bomb at Singapore & the Chief Off. killed. So I wonder where Evelyn is now.” Thus we have established the date of the vessel’s departure.
21 I was sent a very interesting photo and caricature of RSM ‘Florrie’ Ford of the RA, and put the owner in touch with Ford’s family. 21 Today the Canadian Consul General in Hong Kong let Brigadier John Kelburne Lawson’s family know that they have named a conference room at the new Consulate after him. They were very pleased! 21 I had an interesting meeting with Dr Patrick Lo who is studying archives and archivists in Hong Kong. We had a long chat about my work, and that of others who study this subject.
19 Robert England’s (Royal Scots) family got in touch, sending a couple of newspaper articles from the Aberdeen Journal about England’s capture and recovery. He was on the fifth draft of POWs from Hong Kong to Japan, and at the end of the war was liberated by the Americans from Narumi Camp. Robert's wife was Dora, and she was evacuated from Hong Kong to Australia via the Philippines in July 1940; she arrived in Brisbane on the Awatea. She moved to Melbourne on 4 September that year, where her address was: c/o Mrs. Stapleton, "Los Angeles", 456 St. Kilda Road, Melbourne. Mrs Stapelton was a fellow Army wife evacuee.
18Brian McCombe very kindly sent me a set of papers and photographs relating to his father William McCombe, HKVDC (see last month). These ranged from a picture of his father fixing a De Havilland Gypsy Moth at Kai Tak, to Brian and the kids playing around in their car outside their Nathan Road Flat. There was also a fascinating letter received by William in Narumi POW Camp, on the back of which a POW artist (my guess at the signature is Gunner Aubrey George Gardner, HKVDC) had sketched his portrait.
16 Reginald Hildred’s (RA, Lisbon Maru) great nephew got in touch. He asked where Hildred was captured, but as he was in 965 Defence Battery – which was dispersed all over the Island – my best guess is in the Stanley area as that’s where the majority of these men ended up. Interestingly, the family is also related to Leading Sick Berth Attendant Ken George Baggs from the Royal Naval Hospital who survived the Lisbon Maru. Hildred’s relatives live in Brisbane, Baggs’s in Sydney. 16 Ian Inglis (son of John Inglis, also of 965 Battery RA and the Lisbon Maru – though unlike Hildred he survived the sinking), is on holiday in Hong Kong with his wife and son. They visited the site of Sham Shui Po POW Camp and took several photos of the memorials there.
15 Jill Fell kindly sent a photo of the Hyde-Lay family (which she received from Ian Hyde-Lay, Derek Hyde-Lay's son). It is a family portrait of Alexander and Betty and their children, Derek and Kathleen, taken in about 1937. Alex and Betty were of course accidentally killed in the American bombing of Stanley Camp’s Bungalow C in January 1945. The children were neither in my evacuation list nor the Stanley role, so Jill kindly asked Ian Hyde-Lay where they were during the war years. He responded: “Kathleen was evacuated in 1940 and sent to live family friends or acquaintances in Duncan, BC (on Vancouver Island, 45 miles north of Victoria). I believed she attended Queen Margaret’s School. [Derek had been sent] from China to the UK in 1937. He attended St. Mary's prep school in Melrose, and then moved to Oundle School in the Midlands. Upon graduation, he briefly attended Cambridge University, but then joined the Royal Navy in 1943. He worked on various ships, and did several of the Murmansk convoy runs.”
14 Dave Deptford kindly let me know that Eng Lt John Barclay’s (RN, HMS Barlight) medals are for sale by DNW (Dix Noonan Webb), on September19th 2014, Lot 1540. “WW1 and WW2 group of 7 medals to the above, reported as having been ex HMS Barlight, a Boom defence vessel scuttled at the Fall. Recorded as having been held in a wide selection of PoW Camps in HK, last given as SSPo. Detailed write - up. Est GBP120 – 160”. I wonder if this is the same John Barclay reported as receiving a Royal Humane Society Bronze Medal: “Barclay, John, Engineer-Sub-Lieutenant, R.N.R. Case 43600. At 8.30 a.m. on the 8th September, 1916, a man was thrown into the Firth of Forth owing to the swamping of a small boat. Engineer-Sub-Lieutenant John Barclay, R.N.R., jumped in from his ship and attempted to rescue him but failed.”
12 Trevor Hollingsbeee pointed out that Mercury (see last month) could also be: ”used as code to refer a telegraphic cable system, as recently as the 1990s.” Also of course, Mercury is a common newspaper name, and was in turn the Roman god of communication. It seems very likely that the term was used for some forms of intelligence coming into the POW camps.
11 Jean Hughes notes of her father (Sapper David Kyle, see last month): “I have discovered Dad was definitely in Kawasaki 1, reading Dorsey Walkers diary, he mentions on July 30th 1944 two men drank what they thought was alcohol and got very sick, in fact he said two died. There was actually 3 men, Dad being the third, he didn't drink as much, so wasn't sick. He has filled me in on the results of that episode. Also August 13th 1945 2 men were injured during a bombing raid Dad was one of those.” The alcohol referred to was industrial alcohol from a crashed American plane.
10BACEPOW (Bay Area Civilian Ex-Prisoners of War) let me know that they are planning a 70th Anniversary of Liberation trip to the Philippines January 30 – February 11, 2015. Details can be seen here.
6 Frederick Stanford’s granddaughter got in touch. Stanford was CSM of C Coy Royal Scots and was lost on the Lisbon Maru. Some years back I gave a little help to David Stanford for his book ‘Roses In December’ about his grandfather. 6 Elizabeth Ride pointed out that the Cicala crew list referred to last month was a part of General Maltby's post war report to the War Office in November 1945 (with an introductory letter): "which I assume was compiled during their captivity from their collective memories (as they would not have had notes to consult, of course). I have not taken copies of Maltby's whole report (hundreds of pages) but what I have taken is in the HKHP, and included in this is the Cicala report (13 pages) attested by 'Commander RAN, Senior Officer Gunboats' but my copy is without personal signature. The despatches which concern the naval side were 'submitted by the Commodore RN' (see Maltby's letter page 3), so the list would have been on the authority of the Commodore.”
5Lynda Winter kindly sent a photo of Gunner Bernard Ward, 8th Coastal Regiment RA, who was lost on the Lisbon Maru.
2Ian Gill (see last month) is wondering if policeman Brian Fay’s family are around. Fay was one of the police escapers who was recaptured and badly treated, and was a family friend. Interestingly, the Bidmead family (Bidmead was a fellow escapee) joined the Stanley Group recently. He notes that: “I have a cushion (see photos attached) that Rosaleen Millar (fellow internee and my godmother) made for [my mother] for her birthday in 1944 with threads scrounged from here and there.”
September 1st, 2014 Update
Attack on Hyuga (courtesy Cori Baker), Lynch and friends at Hakodate #2B (courtesy Helene Le Beau), Kamaishi Steel Mill after American attack (courtesy Carol Campbell) David Kyle (courtesy Jean Hughes), Laban's Lisbon Maru account (courtesy Barry Saville), Honouring Brian Gill (courtesy Ian Gill) Eastern Fortress, At Least We Lived, In Time of War (all author)
It’s not every week that I pick up three new books about Hong Kong’s wartime period and people. I haven’t had a chance to read any of them yet, but Collingwood’s In Time Of War, Oxford’s At Least They Lived, and Kwong Chi Man and Rusty Tsoi’s Eastern Fortress all look interesting in different ways. It’s interesting too to have two very different American perspectives this month: the amazing exploits of a US Navy pilot who one moment was attacking Japanese naval vessels under heavy return fire, and the next dropping cigarettes onto newly-liberated POW Camps, and a photo of an American senior officer in a different POW Camp that included some of the sickest (and therefore luckiest to survive) Lisbon Maru survivors.
30William McCombe’s (HKVDC) son got in touch. This seemed slightly déjà vu as I knew about the family from my studies of the 1940 evacuation (McCombe’s wife and two children had gone to Sydney). McCombe himself was an instructor at Kai Tak. 30 Jill Fell asked details of the Whiteleys in Stanley, wondering if one might be godmother to her cousin. All she knew was that this Mrs Whiteley lived on Broadwood Road. The Stanley records show an Ellen and William Whiteley, and the Jurors’ Rolls show that William Whiteley lived at 16 Broadwood Road (women were not required to be jurors in those days, thus the roundabout way of cross referencing).
29 Philip Cracknel has put a very interesting, though obviously not very pleasant, entry on his wartime blog about the St Stephen’s Massacre. It’s a collection of statements from a number of surviving victims. We believe that Dr Pope’s house was Bungalow A, but I would love to find proof. 29 A very interesting article appeared via The Battle of Hong Kong facebook page today, about Hong Kong’s harbour defences (indicator loops are lengths of cable laid on the seabed in order to detect submarine incursion). 29 I was contacted today, via Ron Taylor in the UK, by the daughter of a Hong Kong man lost on (we believe) a Merchant Navy vessel during the war. We want to see if he is mentioned on the new Hong Kong Memorial but have the usual challenge that the only way to be sure is to see his name written in Chinese, rather than transliterated in English.
26 EOD were today called to neutralise a device in North Point. It turned out to be a Japanese 150mm HEAP (High Explosive Armour Piercing). EOD were kind enough to let me know that it: “likely was targeting the Pill Boxes (thus the armour piercing, they are thick skinned to penetrate a structure without breaking up on impact). Location was on top of the old North Point Estate.” They also mentioned that the explosive was picric acid – slightly more powerful than TNT, but with an unfortunate tendency to react with the metal of casing and fuse to make a very sensitive contact explosive. These things get nastier as they age and are definitely best avoided. After the controlled explosion they continued: “all these years later and some of us are still dodging Japanese shrapnel in North Point.”
23 Mike Babin kindly let me know the sad news that his father Alf Babin – a survivor of St Stephen’s – passed away last month at the age of 92. A short obituary can be found here (scroll down on the right).
20 The South China Morning Post is looking to interview people in Hong Kong who lived through the war years, for the forthcoming 70th anniversary of the end of hostilities. 20 Here’s an interesting question. William Sprague’s (HKVDC) POW diary has a number of mentions of ‘Mercury’ as if Mercury is either a person bearing news, or something similar. For example: “No.12 read today, but Mercury was rather incoherent.” We wonder if this could be a reference to information coming into Argyle Street by radio or other means? 20 I was shocked today, looking at Amazon.com’s UK site, to see that paperback copies of Not The Slightest Chance are being offered for between two and four thousand pounds! Ludicrous. I’m sure no one would spend anything like that. I’ll have to see if HKUP would be willing to sponsor a new edition.
18 For the first time in a number of years, I was today introduced to a ‘new’ surviving POW from Hong Kong. He is David Kyle of the Royal Engineers, one of the ‘hard men’ who were on the first draft of Hong Kong POWs to be sent to Japan. Aged 94, he now lives in North Island, New Zealand. 18 Elizabeth Ride kindly sent me the list of personnel of HMS Cicala from ADM 199/1286. I didn’t know that this existed. There are dates on the list up to the end of 1942, which makes its provenance hard to guess.
17Tony Ablong contacted me again, still trying to establish precisely how his father Alfred Ernest Ablong (Senior), a Warden in the ARP, lost his life during the fighting. His name is not recorded in CWGC files, nor anywhere else formal that I can find. And yet he certainly didn’t survive, and is believed to have lost his life while trying to provide the defenders of Wang Nai Chung Gap with food. 17 A researcher by the name of Hans Houterman kindly provided me with proof that Joseph Hurst indeed served on HMS Cicala, initially under Gandy. Hurst referred to himself as the commander of the vessel (and this is confirmed by Holroyd’s account), and yet during the fighting the commander was Boldero. It now seems most likely that Hurst commanded temporarily, between those two captains.
16 I’m in contact with Ian Gill. This is doubly interesting, as not only is Ian the younger half brother of poor Brian Gill who drowned in Stanley, but his family and Boxer’s family were very close friends. In fact they stayed with Charles and Mickey at Conygar for quite a while immediately after the war. Ian kindly sent a number of photos from those days. 16 Being stuck in San Francisco airport for five hours, I finally read Joseph Hurst’s full account of his escape from North Point. It was extremely well written. It’s interesting that I now have full unpublished accounts from two of the four members of this escape, plus partial from a third. Hurst, among many other things, was a good observer. I particularly liked this description from a village they passed through shortly after escaping: "During this meal the domestic animals became part of the family. As it s custom to drop all bones and other refuse on the floor while eating, the chickens, dogs, pigs and other animals come into their own by wandering in and out between our legs picking up the scraps and incidentally, keeping the floor relatively clean. There was of course, the usual myriad of flies and mosquitoes due to stagnant pools and filthy conditions. However, I should say the people themselves made valiant attempts to keep themselves moderately clean. They were quite happy and did not aspire to any higher things in life; they were content with their normal lot and simply wished to be left alone. Their lot at this time was far from normal. The Japs had been there and looted the place, leaving little of any real value. They were pitifully poor. The food with which we had been provided was more than they could afford for themselves. We could see the amazed look in the eyes of the children as they watched us eat; it was a long time since they had seen a spread like that and probably never joined in one."
15 George Frost’s great grandson got in touch. The challenge here is that there were two George Frosts in Stanley, and we’re still not sure which one this was! They were both government Health Inspectors, which really doesn’t help.
13I passed Hugh Farmer a few details about Robert Taylor and the Rescue and Demolition Corps of the PWD (Public Works Department). Taylor was the manager of Green Island Cement and a Stanley Internee. Hugh’s Industrial History of Hong Kong website is well worth a look.
12 William Tyner’s family kindly scanned in a number of his letters, plus photos and other relevant documented from Kamaishi (see last month). These included a unique photo of Tyner’s wife and daughter being evacuated to Australia in 1940 on the Awatea (illustrated), and immediate post-war photos showing the damage from the American naval shelling of Kamaishi during which Tyner lost his life.
11 Henry Ching kindly sent me copies of his two most recent occasional papers, covering the HKVDC Nursing Detachment and Auxiliary Nurses. These are available to read here. 11 Lyndon White’s family kindly allowed me to give Canadian veteran George MacDonell a copy of a photo of Douglas Clague that they have. George needs this for a new book he is finishing up.
10Maurice Lynch’s (RAMC, Lisbon Maru) family got in touch sending a large number of very interesting photographs and letters. These included the almost obligatory photo of Lynch and fellow doctors outside the Bowen Road Hospital, but also a selection of letters home. Lynch was one of the very seriously ill men left in Shanghai after the sinking, and eventually – towards the end of the war – transferred to the Hakodate camps. One fascinating photo shows Lynch with fellow POW officers at Hakodate #2B, including the American senior officer Captain John White, USMC. A complete list of these men can be seen on the late Roger Mansell’s website here, and oddly enough Lunch is also mentioned in Philip Cracknell’s latest blog here. Interestingly, Lynch was a French Canadian serving in the British RAMC. He is the only Canadian I know of who was on the Lisbon Maru. 10Mark Sellar was kind enough to send a copy of Brigadier Wallis’s attestation papers.
9 I received a fascinating set of photos from the States, relating to a USN pilot named Wesley Howard Stevens from the torpedo squadron VT-16 that flew from CV-15 (USS Randolph). The photos included a terrifying shot of an attack on the Japanese battleship Hyuga (on July 24, 1945, for which Stevens received the Navy Cross), but also a later photo of a supply drop into a POW Camp (Wakinohama) – and a letter to the pilot from one of the POWs who received that drop! That POW, Petty Officer Harry Roughly, RN, was ex-Hong Kong and had been on the Lisbon Maru. Many of the Kobe House POWs ended up at Wakinohama after the former was bombed out. Roughly passed away in 1979, but the guys in the States would be keen to contact his family if possible.
8 Archibald Laban’s nephew (see last month) kindly sent me his uncle’s description of the sinking of the Lisbon Maru. This is a thirty page account written in beautiful hand writing.
3 Elizabeth Ride had an interesting question. “On which ship did Norman Lockhart Smith leave Hong Kong, on 4 December 1941?” It seems to be the SS An Hwei, but I would be interested if anyone could confirm this.
2Mike Beattie let me know that he’d found an Australian service record for his ex-HK POW father Sapper George Beattie, RE. It appears that he was enlisted with Australian forces in 1945 after return from Japan where he had been a POW (he was on the first draft).
August 1st, 2014 Update
Thomas Hannan second from left, Thomas Hannan service record (both courtesy Malcolm Grant), Leighton Hill Japanese positions (via author) BAAG Supply drop (courtesy Van De Linde collection), Rat Snake (author), King's College teachers (author) William Tyner (courtesy Carol Campbell), Gordon Chalmers (courtesy Andy Duffus), Eucliffe (via Gwulo)
Interesting that two different RAMC families would get in touch this week, and also that one of them would be a Canadian serving in British forces who was on the Lisbon Maru. Despite the large number of Royal Rifles and Winnipeg Grenadiers POWs in Hong Kong at the time, none were sent to Japan on that vessel. I had always wondered if any of the British forces on board were actually Canadian, and now I have an answer.
30 As promised, Andy Duffus kindly sent several photos of Gordon Chalmers, Royal Scots.
29Maurice Lynch’s (RAMC, Lisbon Maru) family got in touch via David Bellis. Lynch was a Canadian serving in British forces.
27 Today Ralph Reimers kindly sent me the complete version of escapee Joseph Hurst’s memoires ‘Escape from Hong Kong’. I will read it on a business trip in early August.
26William Charles Tyner’s (RAMC) granddaughter got in touch, kindly sending a few photos (including one of William and Olive at the annual ball in Hong Kong in 1939 - they are 2nd and 3rd from the right). Tyner’s wife (Olive) and daughter (Marion) were evacuated to Australia. Tyner was one of 27 POWs unfortunate enough to be killed by the American shelling of their POW Camp in Japan (Kamaishi).
24 Richard Frost kindly pointed me to a page on Gwulo with some very interesting photos of both Eucliffe and PB17.
22I received an interesting email from Australia asking whether Hong Kong civilian Frederick John Willey had served in 5AA Regiment. Willey worked for Taikoo Docks and was moved to the ‘Combatant’ list of the reserve in 1940, so even though he was interned in Stanley with his family, it is possible that he joined the AA. Certainly at least two or three other Hong Kong civilians did – via the HKVDC - at some point (John Pearce, for example).
21Brigette Hutchinson kindly sent me an image of her father's (David Alexander Hutchison, HKVDC, V3552) application to remain in Australia upon discharge from British Armed Services. 21 Vera Murrell was discussed on the Stanley Group. I have a huge but very useful document of all government appointments (even the index is over 10MB), which shows that she was a teacher at King’s College. 21 Tan kindly sent me a ‘then and now’ photo based on the one on the bombing of Wanchai that I published last month. He does this so much better than me! We’re discussing what we should do with these – perhaps an exhibition or similar.
15 Cyril McLeman’s (Royal Scots, Lisbon Maru) granddaughter got in touch, pointing out that his name is spelled wrong (McLenan) on my website. I’ll fix that. She notes that he: “escaped through a torpedo hole by swimming underwater, he learnt to swim whilst stationed at Hong Kong before WWII. He was captured by the Japanese and spent the remainder of the war in a Japanese concentration camp where he was tortured, starved and placed in solitary confinement for a large portion of his time there. He never got over it and suffered nightmares his whole life.” 15 I heard today that my short history of the Hong Kong Chinese Regiment will be published in Volume 54 of the Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in March of next year. 15 In discussions with Ralph Reimers about Joseph Hurst it is becoming clear that at some point Hurst commanded HMS Cicala. Does anyone have details of when this might have been? 15 Philip Cracknell reminded me about Frelford, the Middlesex private who ended up in Stanley rather than military POW camp after having saved the life of a wounded Japanese soldier. I have an official note about this somewhere. Each year I am either reminded of Frelford, or find that note, and the following year the opposite occurs but by then I’ve forgotten it was Frelford or who that note pertained to! One day I’ll finally put the two together. Philip has a blog about him here.
14 Today I was sent links to two equally interesting but very different video clips of Hong Kong in 1949, an amateur one and a professional. While 1949 is outside my normal scope, the city at that time had clearly hardly changed from 1945.
13Harry McNaughton’s (Winnipeg Grenadiers) granddaughter got in touch to mention that the Arden Seven Commemorative Plaza in St Vital honours seven Battle of Hong Kong veterans from Arden Avenue (McNaughton was author of the book Shadow Lights of Sham Shui Po). I have met two of these men myself (Ed Shayler and George Peterson) and am very pleased to see them remembered in this way. I also think that the format – the seven empty chairs – is very effective.
13 Dave Deptford reports that the Sunday Telegraph today had an article about a young Japanese pianist who used to play to the POWs at Yokohama #14B. It’s very interesting, but perhaps what interested me most was the fact that they were able to write quite a good article about it so easily. Even five years ago they would have struggled to find these facts; ten years ago it would have been impossible. 13 My copy of Hong Kong 1941-45 has arrived. I will read it over the holidays.
12Brian Edgar reports that the book The Rice Paper Diaries has won the Welsh Book of the Year Award for fiction. The book was inspired by her great aunt and uncle’s (Thomas William Cosmos Jones and Elizabeth Menna Owen Jones) experience in Stanley during the war. However, there’s a bit of a mystery as the author states that Thomas Jones ended the war in Japan, which would be unique for someone who was a long-term Stanley internee. 12 Today my copy of Covered Up In Kowloon arrived (illustrated). Normally the books written by war time missionaries are a bit dull, as the missionaries tend to spend most of their words describing how wonderful they are, but this one – bought on Brian Edgar’s excellent suggestion – is actually very interesting. As Brian had said, almost the entire book is about two missionaries’ experience of living in Kowloon from its fall until the point of the Canadian repatriation. It’s a shame that it doesn’t give a lot of detail, and people are referred to as ‘Mrs A’ or ‘Mr D’ rather a lot, but it was well worth a read. Also, useful for my study of the fate of Hong Kong’s Chinese population in the war years: “Daily, as we walked the streets, we would see poor starved men, women, and children lying on the pavement too weak to move or already dead. Their numbers were so great, and the general poverty so intense that there were very few able to do anything to relieve their suffering.”
10Following on from last month, Malcolm Grant kindly sent three photos of Tommy Hannan in uniform and a copy of his service record. The latter, of course, bore the dreaded words familiar to all with relatives on the Lisbon Maru: ‘Previously reported Prisoner of War. Now Missing at Sea.’
9 I heard today that a group called Friends Of Hong Kong Cemetery has been founded, striving to help conserve the architecture, historical elements, flora and fauna. It sounds an excellent initiative to me, and I’ll give more news when it’s available. 9 Walking home from the office along Bowen Road, just before reaching the old military hospital, I noticed a Magpie Robin making a great fuss about something, flying continuously from the wall on the north side, to a tree on the south and back again. It didn’t take long to see why; a two metre long rat snake was in the tree, presumably threatening a nest. (Rat snakes are impressive but harmless, but seeing as they are the main food of king cobras I don’t normally spend too much time in their vicinity!)
8Joseph Hurst’s (RNR, Escaper) nephew-in-law got it touch. This has led to one of the most interesting conversations in recent months. With an OBE and two DSCs, Hurst (perhaps unsurprisingly) turns out to have been a very interesting man. Of fellow escaper Petty Officer E. Maxwell Holroyd, R.N. he notes: “Naval reservist who had been attached to the Chinese Maritime Custom’s shore staff. His knowledge of the countryside over the border was extensive. During his years in the Customs as a preventive he was able to learn all the smugglers’ paths and methods. His frequent incursions into the Chinese interior with armed parties gave him valuable knowledge and experience of the interior, as well as the eccentricities of the Chinese. A fluent speaker of Cantonese and all local dialects, together with an uncanny knowledge. He was tough, reliable and extremely humorous. To him, without a doubt, must be given the credit of at least seventy percent of the success of the escape." 8 Brian Edgar found an interesting file at the PRO implying that the UK was giving help to destitute citizens in Stanley Camp during the war. The subject, Thomas Henry Gordon Brayfield, is shown in the Jurors' List until 1939 as working at Carmichael & Clarke, Ltd and as a 'special juror'. This implies that at least at that time we would have been relatively wealthy. 8 I received a request for information about the Japanese removal of metal from Hong Kong for their war effort. I gave what assistance I could, and then asked Elizabeth Ride what she had on the subject. Amazingly, Elizabeth had a file on this topic – I suspect she has a file on every topic! – and kindly assisted.
7 I have mentioned this site about Barney Byrne, HKVDC, before. Today I found another one here. Seems like a very popular chap! 7 Charles Dobie has found another collection of Hong Kong liberation photos from HMCS Prince Robert.
6 Through Ron Taylor in the UK I am in touch with an Australian journalist who is: “researching a diary from WW2, author unknown unfortunately, who was a POW in Changi before being sent to Kobe in Japan.” The diary mentions several Hong Kong POWs who had been on the Lisbon Maru, one of them being the well-regarded RSM Challis of the first Middlesex.
4When looking through my old computer files I came across a large set of images of BAAG labelled ‘Van De Linde’. The only problem is that I can’t recall how I got them! I remember Osler Thomas (Force 136) showing me a photo of a supply drop ten or fifteen years ago, which seems to be in this set too, but I don’t recall if they came from him.
2On the Battle of Hong Kong facebook page, someone posted a link to an excellent BAAG handout from last year’s exhibition at the University of Hong Kong. I am surprised that I hadn’t seen this before as I was peripherally involved in the show (looking after some of the exhibits for a year or so afterwards). 2 I learned from Alexandra Talbot today that her father was a member of Z Force. I should have guessed from his close friendship with Mike Kendall. “Our Group originally had seven members: Mike Kendall the head know-all and trainer; Ronnie Holmes; Eddy Teasdale; Colin McEwan; Bob Thompson; Monia Talan, a very sweet quietly spoken … guy but tough when needed; and myself, doctor to the group if doctoring ever became necessary. Each member had to do the same training and was really of equal standing in the group…” 2 The Researching FEPOW History Group has announced their 2015 conference in association with the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM).
1Jack Mitchell sent me a nice story: “Although the HKVDC was mobilised on 7th December ’41, I was not released from Special Duties in the Colonial Secretariat until 21st December. Suffice to say that some material had to be destroyed securely – that was done in the furnaces of the Old Gloucester Hotel. All was accomplished and on completion of the job on 1st December, I was given the choice of staying on at the Secretariat or joining Corps Signals, having first been warned that the end was not far off. I elected to rejoin my Unit but the problem was how to get from Central District to Corps Headquarters in Peak Mansions – the Peak Tram and public transport were non-existent. One problem! The solution – walk up the steps adjoining the tramlines from Lower Garden Road right to the top. The climb was quite arduous – carrying some food supplies for my mother, sisters, baby niece billeted on May Road, together with my own kit. I never had time to count the steps or admire the view – one fall could have spelt disaster for me. I eventually made it, much to the surprise of my pals.” 1 Elizabeth Ride, remembering an unexplained photograph of a wrecked car somewhere on the Peak that I put on this site a few years back, quoted a report by N.I.D., 20.12.45 WO 208 750A: "Death of Captain Pardoe. Captain Pardoe was sent on a liaison to another Intelligence organisation situated on the Peak. As the car was climbing the hill a Japanese air raid took place and a bomb fell near the vehicle wrecking it and killing the occupants." This may have been Pardoe’s car, but there were quite a few damaged in the area. 1 T.K. Wong was kind enough to point out that the water colour paintings (see last month): “were drawn by Kwan Shan-Yuet. He was a quite famous painter of the LingNan Faction”. I believe this is Guan Shanyue in modern transliteration. And for the photo of the aftermath of an American raid on Wanchai, he noted: “The white building in the background of the photo was the Peel Clinic. It was a landmark of Wanchai even up to the mid 70s. To the left of the rails was the Southorn Playground (Southorn Stadium of today). The photo is facing to the direction of Causeway Bay.” The street is Johnston Road.
July 1st, 2014 Update
Mike Kendall (courtesy Alexandra Talbot), Gordon and Mrs Chalmer (courtesy Andy Duffus), Begg murder (via facebook) Wanchai bombing (via facebook), Luk Kwok Hotel (via facebook), Wallis medals (courtesy Mark Sellar) Artist's chop (courtesy Alexandra Talbot), Tom Hannan (via Ron Taylor, UK), Chick-lit (author)
It’s an odd feeling being between projects. With my study of the 1940 evacuation of British women and children from Hong Kong now completed, I need to start something else. Of course I have a number of old projects available, half-written books about the siege of the Repulse Bay Hotel, or Hong Kong’s Irregulars (BAAG, the Chindits, everything accomplished by the escapers and evaders), and so forth. But it’s also an opportunity to start up something entirely new. I’ll probably spend the summer thinking it over, and may well complete one of the old projects before applying myself to a brand new challenge.
28 A student contacted me today, about researching into the Japanese shipment of metals from wartime Hong Kong to Japan. This certainly included motor vehicles and statues, and I suspect other things too.
26On the way to the annual Canada Day reception in Central, I stopped off at a nearby book shop and saw a few of my books for sale in an unexpected – but no doubt vastly less loss-making – genre! 26 The Australian Defence Force Academy kindly let me know that my thesis has been forwarded to the examiners. There will now be a wait of six to eight weeks for a result.
24Thomas Hannan’s (Royal Artillery, Lisbon Maru) cousin was put in touch with me by Ron Taylor (UK) who also kindly passed me a photo. The cousin has not yet responded to my email.
22George Robinson and Gordon Wheatcroft’s (Winnipeg Grenadiers) nephew got in touch. He notes that Mr Robinson was shot in the legs and never had feelings in them again. Thanks in part to Hollywood, where people always make a full recovery from wounds, in reality permanent nerve damage was a common occurrence. 22 Alice and David Hutchinson’s (Stanley Internee and HKVDC respectively) daughter got in touch.
21Alexandra Talbot kindly sent me an excellent photo of Mike Kendall of Z Force fame (HKVDC Reconnaissance Unit).
20 Gordon Chalmers (Royal Scots, Lisbon Maru) nephew got in touch, noting: “He survived the war and returned to Edinburgh, married in 1948, then in the late sixties returned to his native Aberdeen. He was always very reticent to talk about the Lisbon Maru, though he did on one memorable occasion, revealing the horror of the tragedy. However, he was more open about his time as a POW always telling me the 'the Japanese were cruel to their own as much as they were to us'. Unfortunately Gordon died in 2004 aged 90 and I inherited his 'memory box' which contained his military medals, athletics medals, Japanese 'Victory' money and Royal Scots badges etc., which he took me through when I was a young lad.” He also kindly sent several photos. 20 Mark Sellar kindly let me know that: “the Pacific Star quartet and Imperial Service Medal of Harold Jackson, Storeman at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Hong Kong, were offered for sale on eBay last weekend. I note that after transportation to Japan and subsequent liberation, Harold (accompanied by his family) returned to Hong Kong post-war to resume - for a few years - his work in the Dockyard Stores there.”
16 Alexandra Talbot (daughter of Stanley internee Dr Harry Talbot) is trying: “to find out some information regarding a series of Chinese water colors given to my parents in Hong Kong many years ago… I would like to find out who the artist is… my parents were told that the artist was quite famous.” I don’t know anything about these things, but have added a photo of the artist’s signature and chop just in case someone else does.
13Peter Hennessy kindly let me know that Vice Admiral Ralph L Hennessy, DSC, CD, passed away today, and his obituary was published. Although Ralph was not in Hong Kong (instead he fought with distinction in the RCN in the Atlantic), he was the eldest son of Colonel Pat Hennessy RCASC who was killed by a shell on The Peak during the fighting. He would have been 96 this September.
12I was delighted to hear from Phil Doddridge, Royal Rifles of Canada, again. We used to be in touch regularly, and I was fortunate to meet him on his last visit to Hong Kong. He’s now 92, and in good health. 12 Thomas Fullerton’s (Royal Scots, Lisbon Maru) great nephew got in touch. 12 I received an email from Eleanor Vaughan, visiting Hong Kong from Canada to research Hong Kong’s war crimes trials from the perspective of the Canadian POWs’ experience.
10Stuart Braga reported a book I hadn’t heard of before: Covered Up In Kowloon. However, I had heard of the authors (Canadian missionaries and Stanley internees named Harold Fetherstonhaugh Collier and his wife Frances Dorothy Collier). Left behind in Kowloon as the Japanese attacked, they never made it to Stanley, instead being added directly to the Canadian repatriation in 1943.
7William Grant Shepherd’s grandson contacted me. Shepherd was one of the people who helped me most on the Lisbon Maru book (he was a Royal Navy Engine Room Artificer and, obviously, survived the sinking). It’s always interesting when this happens, as in many cases POWs were happy to tell me (just a fly on the wall) things that they could never tell their own families. 7 On someone’s advice, I read Fighting Mad by ‘Mad Mike’ Calvert. It is a fascinating book by a fascinating (and finally rather tragic) character. Calvert’s first posting was to pre-war Hong Kong where he raised a unit of local Royal Engineers and learnt reasonable Cantonese. He states that while visiting China during the war he came across the group of Hong Kong escapers and evaders gathered together by BAAG and was instrumental in making them part of his Chindit group (William Young of 3 Coy HKVDC would become his batman, but in practice also his bodyguard during some of the worst fighting). 7 I am back in contact with Kamal Prasad, son of Kamta Prasad who commanded B Coy 2/14th Punjabis. Kamal is helping me with some biographical details of his father, who had an outstanding post war career. One nice quote when I asked Kamal why his mother’s name has the letters ‘RK’ in front of it: “Oh, RK is/was the Indian title... my mum was a small Raja's daughter, kind of blue blooded. She once told us kids your father has earned his title (rank), it's not merely by birth!!”
6Elizabeth Ride passed me a very interesting document (which was primarily intended for Tim Ko) concerning Japanese battle charms identified by BAAG. I wonder if this could explain the sometimes unexpected things (old coins, old badges, and so forth) sometimes found on the battlefields? 6 Mark Sellar sent me a very interesting note saying that he had been able to: “obtain the medals of Brigadier Cedric Wallis, and thought you might like to receive the attached photograph of his campaign medals as he had worn them in later life.” The medals are: 1914-15 Star, British War Medal, Interallied Victory Medal, General Service Medal 1918 GV 1st issue with clasps 'Iraq' & 'Kurdistan', 1939-45 Star, Pacific Star, Defence Medal, War Medal with Oakleaf emblem denoting 'Mention-in-Despatches'. He continued: “M.I.D., was specifically for his services during the Battle for Kong, and was published in the Supplement to the London Gazette issue of 4 April 1946, the preamble of which states: ‘The KING has been graciously pleased to approve that the following be Mentioned in recognition of gallant and distinguished services in the defence of Hong Kong in 1941’.” Mark also pointed out that contrary to many accounts, Wallis was not a recipient of the Military Cross (interestingly, neither was his counterpart Lawson, though some books also claim he was).
4 Iain Gow followed up from last month’s photo of the ruins of Kobe house with a plan of the camp taken from John Lane’s book Summer Will Come Again. This book, by an Australian POW (not captured in Hong Kong), used to be available to read online but seems to have been deleted now. 4 Barbara Anslow noted: “Seeing reference in your May newsletter to the Marriott family jerked my memory: I recall the death of Mr Marriott but thought he was referred to as 'Kid'. I believe his daughter was the young mother who lived in a room in our corridor in Block 3, Married Q, with her little boy Tommy. [Their surname was White]. Tommy was the only child in our corridor of flats, his Mum was continually keeping him in order so as not to annoy us adults; he was a charming little boy.” This was Mrs J. P. White.
2 Justin Cahill kindly sent me a copy of George Baxter’s (the manager of the Hong Kong Bureau of United Press) short book, Personal Experiences During The Siege Of Hong Kong (illustrated). In three parts it covers the battle of Hong Kong, internment, and the exchange at Laurenco Marques.
1 Someone put a newspaper page on the Battle of Hong Kong facebook page, mentioning the death of Nurse Begg of the HKVDC. I knew that her husband, like Nurse Buxton’s was in the HKVDC, but hadn’t realised until reading this that the third of the British nurses killed at Stanley on Christmas Day, Nurse Smith, was married to Lieutenant Colonel Walter John L. Smith, RAOC, who was also in Hong Kong and was taken POW. This facebook page is well worth keeping an eye on. Other interesting images posted this month included a photo of the original Luk Kwok Hotel – showing war damage – and a rather unpleasant image showing the destruction caused by American bombing in Wanchai.
June 1st, 2014 Update
Barracudas over HSBC (via Charles Dobie), Reg Stemp (courtesy Jan Roy), Odd buckles (courtesy Stuart Wood) Stanley war damage (via Charle Dobie), Stanley Camp (author's files), Stanley war damage (via Charles Dobie) Xmas day with the Penns (courtesy Susan Lange), Roberts Block (author), Allister painting (courtesy Arleigh Hudson)
This May marked the 160th anniversary of the foundation of the Volunteers. Brought into being in 1854, they were disbanded a year or two before the 1997 handover. During all that time the Volunteers were rather different from most part-time forces, taking their job very seriously, and – for example - delighting in beating the Middlesex Regiment (regular professional machine gunners) in competitions on the range. During the Battle of Hong Kong, several HKVDC units were all but wiped out, but at a severe cost to the Japanese. Post-war research has clearly shown that at Wong Nai Chung Gap, 3 Company was responsible for more Japanese casualties than any other unit, and other companies were equally effective at Stanley and other engagements. Today, although I am only in touch with a handful of veterans from those days, there’s still a strong spirit alive with the Volunteers Association in Hong Kong, Canada, and Australia, and all celebrate Foundation Day.
31 As part of the commemorations of the anniversary of the start of the Great War, Bill Lake sent a reminder that a production of Oh What A Lovely War will be playing at the Shouson Theatre in Wanchai, June 25-28. The important point is that this production is in association with the Royal British Legion. Details can be found here.
30 Iain Gow, whose father (James Gow, Royal Scots) was a POW at Kobe House, found online a fascinating colour cine film of the ruins of the camp. The shot in question starts at 1.20, and I found that by blowing it up to full size and taking a screen shot, I could capture a reasonably good quality image. The footage is taken from an almost identical angle as this photo from the Australian War Museum from August 1945. Iain has a photo of his father standing by the same broken corner piece shortly after liberation. 30 Today the Royal Hong Kong Regiment (The Volunteers) Association continued the tradition of holding their annual dinner on the last Friday of May, as the anniversary of the founding of the Volunteers. The main guest was Ian Burchett, the Consul General of Canada in Hong Kong and Macao, who gave a fine speech. The Association also kindly invited me, with the added attraction that not being the main guest, I had a free dinner and didn’t even have to speak! It was actually very enjoyable, and I was pleasantly surprised at how many of the attendees I knew (and how generous they were with the port…)
29 Kenneth Young’s (Middlesex, Lisbon Maru) nephew got in touch.
28Arleigh Hudson, granddaughter of John Burton RCASC, got back in touch. The family has a number of paintings given to them by William Allister, RCCS, including a fine one that is clearly a view from North Point POW camp looking north across the harbour. There are also copies here.
27 Walking down from The Peak via Hatton Road I had a good view of ‘Doc’ Ride’s house. Although it looks pre-war, it was actually built for him at HKU just after the war. There is, of course, a 10-inch coastal gun in the garden.
25Walter Thompson’s (HKPF) family got in touch, kindly sending a number of photos of him and his family, including one of Walter himself just before the war (illustrated). Walter’s wife and two children were evacuees, and another daughter was the first evacuee to be born ‘in Australia’ as she was born at sea in Australian waters as their ship arrived.
23 I was contacted by a friend of Alf Bennett, who kindly introduced me to wartime policeman Walter Thompson’s family. Bennett was a fluent Japanese speaker and a friend of Charles Boxer, among others. 23 Dave Deptford notes that Sapper Bernard Todd’s relatives live near him, and want to know more about his death. Todd’s Commonwealth War Graves Commission entry brackets his death as 8-25 December 1941. However, in my original research into the 1941 deaths, I noted that the internal records of the CWGC listed him as having been originally buried at the north end of North Point camp on 22 December. The implication, I believe, is that he had been wounded at some point between December 19 and 22 in the eastern sector. He may well have been in the group of POWs held at Wong Nai Chung Gap overnight on the 19th, and marched to North Point on the 20th. Many of those, of course, had been wounded in the fighting or when the 'black hole' was mortared.
21 I had an interesting email today from a friend of the Marriott family. She is researching Henry ‘Ked’ Marriott and his descendants, including daughters who became Emma E Field and Mrs White.
19 Today I received an unusual email from the family of a man apparently murdered on the China / Hong Kong border in the mid 1950s. They would like help to identify where he was buried, and reinter him properly. This is way outside my normal area, but worth pursuing.
17George Tattam’s (Middlesex) granddaughter got in touch again (see 2010). Previously I had told her that Tattam was liberated from Yokohama Stadium Camp, but I now realize that this was incorrect. He was a POW there until 1 May 1944, then the camp closed and the POWs were dispersed. In Tattam’s case, he went to Tokyo #18D. From there, finally, he was sent to Tokyo #15B (or #5B), from which he was actually liberated.
14Rob Weir mentions that walking into his local Melbourne library he found a copy of Not The Slightest Chance on the shelf! 14 On the Hong Kong War facebook page, someone posted a South China Morning post article featuring Tim Ko which I think I missed last year.
12 RSM Enos ‘Henry’ Ford’s (RA) niece got in touch via Philip Cracknell. (see last month). 12 I had an enquiry from the village of Silverstone about a name on their war memorial: Albert Henry Roberts of the RASC who is buried in Sai Wan. Roberts was actually one of the POWs who died in Taiwan and was reinterred in Hong Kong after the war, so I passed the question to Michael Hurst of the POW Taiwan group who kindly furnished all the necessary details.
11 Susan Lange sent a fascinating 1939 or 1940 Christmas Day photograph. Taken at ‘Penno’s’ (which no doubt means the Penn family’s house) at 172 The Peak, Mount Kellett, Hong Kong, at 15.00, it shows: John Collis, Marion Gordon, Alistair Somerfelt, Gladys Collis, Aci Bowker, William Simmons ‘Simmy’ of the Tramways, Keith Valentine, Rene Penn, Harry Penn, Ralph xxxx, Mrs. Somerfelt, and Vyner Gordon. Children: Gavin Gordon, Bruce Valentine, David xxxx, and Judith Ann Collis, with Patricia Penn standing behind the children. Bowker and Gordon were of course both lost during the war. We would be grateful if anyone could plug in the two missing names. She also sent another photo of old Peak School’s students in 1933/1934, though I suspect most of these had actually returned to the UK to continue their education before the outbreak of the Pacific War – but not their teacher, Bee Bicheno, who was interned in Stanley.
10In my correspondence with Stemp’s family, they revealed that Stemp’s mother (nee Taylor) lost not only her son, but also all but one of her brothers to war: William Taylor, Boer war and WWI, Sapper 59372 87th Field Coy RE, killed 30 December 1915 Joseph Taylor, Boer war, died shortly after of wounds. Samuel Taylor, WWI, Private 6051 2nd Battalion East Surrey Regiment died 19 March 1917 aged 25 on board hospital ship Asturias returning from Salonika where he had been fighting. John Taylor, WWI, private 951525 Royal Fusiliers. Died in 1947 in Springfield Mental Asylum, Surrey, from shell shock incurred during the Great War. George Taylor, WWI, Private 10142 Royal Fusiliers survived the war and died in 1949. I have come across other stories of such major losses in single families, but it's the shellshock aspect that I find most horrifying. It was only a few years ago (2009?) that I read that the last shell-shocked British soldier from the Great War had finally passed away in an asylum.
9Reginald Stemp’s (RA, Lisbon Maru) nephew got in touch, kindly sending two photographs and a copy of Mr Stemp’s last letter home. He notes: “He talks about his daily life and that the food is ok but that he wouldn’t mind going short if he could get home. He also mentions that the church is a Cinema and that he had tickets to see A Little Bit of heaven. He mentions the Canadians arriving.” Stemp’s letter shows that he was in 12th Battery, but the CWGC has him under 8th. I expect he transferred shortly before hostilities commenced, and the paperwork never caught up.
5Taking a short cut from Island School to Wanchai I passed the Roberts Block of the old Victoria Barracks. It’s a large sturdy building and a shame that it appears to be unused at the moment. The nearest other block has been one of Mothers’ Choice’s units for many years.
4Two strange objects were found in the hills today, like enlarged buckles or clips, or similar. We’ve all found these over the years, but no one knows what they are. Any ideas?
1 In response to last month’s question about documentation of wartime events in Happy Valley, T.K. kindly sent the following summary: a. H K Surgeon - Li Shu Fan-page 100, page 105-106, 109-111 and page 124. b. Phyllis Harrop - HK Incident-page 83-84. c. Adrienne Clarkson - Heart Matters-page 19-20. d. War Diaries of Captain U. Laite (C Force) - 23-24 of Dec. 41. e. Excerpts from HK War crime Trial - Appendix 7 1 The month started well, continuing with helping Charles Dobie identify the locations of the HCMS Ontario 12 September to 1 November 1945 photos here (you need to allow some time for loading). I expect others can help with more details. Of particular interest to me were the battle-damaged buildings in the Stanley photos here. Another that caught my eye was what I first thought was a squadron of spitfires in a fly-over above the old HSBC headquarters. On closer examination, I realised that they were in fact the awful old Fairey Barracuda (my mother flew in these in the WRENs, and nobody had a good word to say about them – unlike the Firefly which was quite popular). I have arranged the Stanley damage photos of Up The Hill and the Police Officers’ Club (enlarged) on either side of a stock photo of the camp so that you can see where these two buildings fitted in.
May 1st, 2014 Update
Evacuees in Canada (courtesy Strellett/Hutson family), Dragon Lodge (author), Forth's grave (courtesy Amanda MacGregor) Rum Bottle (via Craig Mitchell), Stanley battle damage (via Charles Dobie), Frank Foord records (courtesy Martin Heyes) George Parkins (courtesy Rowena Palmer), Stanley Prison (via Philip Cracknell), Fredrick Mulvihill (courtesy Anthony Mulvihill)
One unexpected discovery I made in the early 1990s was that the majority of ex-POW families that I contacted had kept dad’s/husband’s diaries. These ranged from two or three scribbled sheets (typically containing just significant dates – letters from home, Red Cross parcels and so forth), to one of more than 1,000 pages kept by an HKVDC officer. Many people think it was against camp rules to keep diaries, but I’m not at all sure that was the case; there was even a bookbinder in Sham Shui Po who made blank books to order. But here’s the point: the keepers of some diaries typed them up post war. With modern software, it’s now easy to scan such pages in and turn them directly into word processor documents. I just did that with a 50,000-word document (nothing to do with Hong Kong, as it happens) and it took less than a day. Anyone with such a diary that they want to share with family, or even consider for publication, can now save hundreds of hours of typing.
30 Charles Dobie kindly sent a fascinating set of photos taken by HMCS Ontario in Hong Kong after arriving on 12 September 1945. I’m helping him identify some of the locations and will share the URL next month. There are a number that I have never seen before, such as a view of Stanley showing battle damage to the Prison Officers’ Quarters.
28 I had a look at Dragon Lodge today (see the 12th). It has a new gate and a new padlock, but aside from that it doesn’t seem to have been touched since the last renovation efforts petered out around three years ago. Some of the windows are open, which doesn’t bode well for its future.
25 Albert Forth’s (RE) family got in touch, kindly sending a photo of his grave in Yokohama.
23 Boris Milenko’s (HKVDC) son contacted me, noting that: “He graduated in 1939 from the University of Hong Kong and joined the volunteer defence force soon after. He was in Hong Kong when the Japanese invasion occurred and for several months worked at the hospital.” Hong Kong Volunteers In Battle lists him under: ‘Did not enter POW Camps or escaped early in 1942’ as Sapper Milenko B. G. 5258. Aside from that, I don’t seem to have anything about him.
22I was contacted today by a free lance archery writer who had found this quote: “In trying to take the Repulse Bay Hotel the Japanese were astonished to find themselves assailed in the surrounding undergrowth by flaming arrows, the defenders having found an old archery set on the premises.” (The Crown Colonist, Volume 12, page 129, 1942). Although I have a couple of eye witness accounts of the undergrowth being set fire to, I haven’t previously heard of flaming arrows being employed. Has anyone else?
21Susan Lange, the grand daughter of Captain David Strellett, kindly sent a photo: “of a party for ‘Hong Kong Refugees’ at Government House, Victoria, BC in October 1940. My mother, Jane Strellett (age 14) and Patricia Penn are in it, amongst many others.” Patricia Penn is the young blonde girl right up front to the left. Jane Strellett, oldest daughter of David, is the young girl with dark curly hair in the middle, with her eyes looking down to the left of the photo. Unfortunately I don't know who the others are at this point. Anyone recognize them?
20Philip Cracknell has written an interesting new blog: “about RSM Ford on Mount Davis who lived at the Cathay Hotel and Miss Leontine Grace who owned it. She was one of three Miss Ellis sisters interned in Stanley Camp and from a prominent Jewish family in HK. RSM Ford was a Technical Gunnery Instructor (I.G.) and survived the war - continued in the Army was commissioned as an officer. His wife Edith Rose (known as Rose) was evacuated with their daughter Dorothy (still alive). I am trying to get more information from family but I think he must have gone to Australia to meet up with Rose and Dorothy and returned to UK with them - where his father met him - his father missing a leg from the Great War. The Cathay Hotel was on the North Shore and destroyed by shelling. Leontine Ellis, a member of HKVDC N.D., died in Stanley Camp in 1942. Her sisters returned to HK in 1947 after having been evacuated to UK.” Ford was in the Battery Plotting Room at Mount Davis during the famous unexploded shell incident.
15 Ian McNay kindly let me know that he returned from Australian evacuation aboard the SS Kanimbla, stopping at Hiroshima on the way. That must have been quite a shocking experience so soon after the bomb (around June 46).
14Yet another wartime British water bottle turned up in the hills today, but this time it was First World War vintage. Old stock issued in 1941, or a memento that one of the older soldiers still carried? Also (illustrated), a Winnipeg Grenadier badge. 14 Henry Ching kindly sent two more of his Occasional Papers (24 and 25), this time covering the PWD Corps and ANZACs in the HKVDC. At time of writing they are not yet on the Hong Kong Volunteer & Ex-PoW Association of NSW’s website, but presumably will be soon.
12 Philip Cracknell sent the Stanley Group a very interesting May 1949 aerial photo of Stanley, featuring St Stephens’s and the prison. 12 Rob Weir placed a great article about Hong Kong’s coastal pillboxes on Gwulo. 12 Gordon Smith sent me a series of very interesting emails about ‘Dragon Lodge' which is at 32 Lugard Road on the Peak. I walk past this house every week, and it has been empty for as long as I have known it; I fantasize about the owners donating it to me, as it is in such a wonderful location. While I’m not sure I believe all the stories (here and here) associated with the building, perhaps they explain why it has been uninhabited for so long.
11 Local historian Bill Lake spoke today on the Radio show ‘Morning Brew’. I found it very entertaining.
10 Elizabeth Ride kindly sent a unique covering letter (from BAAG files) from Cheung Chin Shum to the British Ambassador in Kukong, that originally included an attachment of a letter to be forwarded to Mrs Sarah Robinson Smith (an evacuee in Australia who was married to Quarter Master Sergeant Robert Smith of the RASC and had evacuated with their four children). Unfortunately that letter itself was not in the files. Cheung describes how Smith was a fuel and light accountant of the RASC, and he was his assistant. Robert Smith died as a POW of dysentery on 13 August 1942.
8Rowena Palmer (see last month) kindly sent a photo of her Great-Uncle George Parkins who died on the Lisbon Maru.
7Bob Tatz kindly sent me a great deal of information about Leslie Woodward ‘Tips’ Tipple and his wife Dorothy Irene (who was born in Hong Kong 10 August 1912, nee Avenell). They were married in St. Andrew’s Church on Nathan Road in January 1932 and had two children – friends of Bob in those days - Lesley (31-Dec-1933) and Berry (31-Oct-1932). “Dorothy and the kids were evacuated to Australia. Tips was with the RAF in Hong Kong when he met Dorothy, sometime before 1932. When demobbed he joined Gilman Motors or Dodwells (he was a trained Rolls Royce Engineer and had a degree from Oxford). He used to deliver loads of trucks into China and made several runs on these missions. Then Tips joined KMB when they started up in 1933. He left HK soon after the family departed for Australia. Tips arrived in Shanghai driving a truck where he left his household effects in the custody of an English policeman. Somehow he became a Captain in the Indian Army Ordinance Corp and was taken on to go to Burma for the Burma Road construction. He left Shanghai on 2 December 1941 (Evacuation No. 183), as a passenger on the S.S. Anhui, and arrived in HK 6 December 1941. Anhui must have left HK just before the attack on HK, but the ship by-passed Singapore on its way directly to Sydney, arriving on 29 December 1941. Tips’s passport showed the following notations: 6 January 1942 – ‘right to stay until 6 February 1942 – holder is proceeding to India’. The next passport notation showed ‘Harbour Police, Colombo, 31 January 1942’.” Tips was killed in a car crash in Calcutta driven by a drunken RNVR Officer on 1 May 1942. Interestingly, I am pretty sure that this was the voyage on which Anhui stopped in Manila on the way to Sydney. Some Hong Kong passengers disembarked there, and would spend the war years in Santo Tomas Internment Camp.
6 A correspondent’s father (then eight years old) lived in Happy Valley during 1941. Does anyone know of any accurate Chinese account of how civilians fared there at that time? I have put together a few bits and pieces relating to the fighting that passed through the area, but nothing comprehensive, and nothing about the months that immediately followed.
5 Working with Anthony Mulvihill (see last month), we now have what I believe to be a near perfect listing of Thracian’s crew. Anthony also kindly sent a photo of hid father, Fredrick Mulvihill of HMS Thracian who was wounded and taken prisoner. 5 A perfectly preserved wartime military rum bottle was found up in the hills today.
2 Martin Heyes kindly sent me the Statement of Service n the Canadian Armed Forces for Private Frank Maxwell Foord, Winnipeg Grenadiers, who was lost on 22 December 1941. This is the first such complete set that I have seen, consisting of the Attestation Paper, Record of Service, and Record of Promotions.
April 1st, 2014 Update
Lenny Munsey's wedding (courtesy Mike Ward), George Robins at Shamshuipo and with friends (both courtesy Janet Nye) Barbara Anslow's block of flats (courtesy TK), Yale Plaque (courtesy Susan Wood), Andrews' knife (courtesy Charles Collard) Compass (courtesy Martin Dewick), Wanchai's Haunted House (author), Bodie and intake (courtesy Ian Bodie)
Jack Mitchell’s mini-biographies of some of his friends in the HKVDC Signals reminded me of a letter that I asked Lieutenant ‘Bunny’ Browne to write more than ten years ago. I asked him to send a one-paragraph description of each of the officers in Maltby’s Battle Box during the fighting. He kindly did that, and of course now I wished that – back then when I had the opportunity – I had asked all the veterans I corresponded with to do similar.
29Frederick Mulvihill’s (RN) son got in touch. Mulvihill served on HMS Thracian.
27 Leonard Munsey’s (RAOC) great nephew got in touch, kindly sending a wedding photo. Apparently Munsey was one of many of the garrison who married local Hong Kong girls, in his case having a daughter too. Unfortunately no one seems to have copies of the marriage certificates from that time. The wedding photo, like so many from that date, was taken at the north eastern corner of the old Supreme Court building.
26 George Robins’s (Middlesex, Lisbon Maru) daughter got in touch. Robins commanded PB22 - which is still visible on the Chung Hom Kok shoreline from Stanley - in the fighting. She included four photos of Robins and the Middlesex, two of which were clearly taken pre-war at Sham Shui Po barracks.
24Jack Mitchell of the HKVDC Signals kindly sent a report on all the Signallers shown in the group photo (see January 2014). Fortunately Jack has a remarkable memory and was able to bring many of these men to life with his descriptions. For example: “Signalman Cedric Salter – was an Air Conditioning Engineer employed by Dodwells and returned to Hong Kong after the war. Was attached to the Armoured Cars and won the Military Medal. Sent to Japan on the first Volunteer draft in December ’42. Married a Mae Brown in Hong Kong after the war and later returned to the UK. Salter’s Lewis Gun was the only one firing when the Japanese bombed the Colonial Secretariat and the HKVDC Headquarters – I was with him at the time.” And: “Thomas Suiter (Sut) – educated at CBS and I think worked for the Bank Line. His father was a chemist at The Pharmacy (the junction of Queen’s Road and Peddar Street). Suiter survived the war, returned to Hong Kong for a short time and left to take up residence in the UK.” He also reminded me that Billy Poy’s daughter went on to great things in Canadian politics. 24 Joy Wanstall, whose father George Bainborough served on HMS Tamar during the war, kindly passed on the bad news that Jack Hughieson (who served on the MTBs and was one of the very few survivors of the Lisbon Maru still around) had passed away at the age of 94.
23 Today I submitted the second draft of my thesis about the Hong Kong Evacuees. I don’t know whether it is good enough, but it is certainly far better than the first draft!
22 Lau Yam Choi’s grandson got in touch. It seems that Lau may have been in the BAAG, but we are currently checking details.
21 Lindsey Cartwright let me know that while cleaning out some bits and pieces they: “found a military watch with the name Chas McGuire, with Hong Kong 1940 on the back. With it is an old gold coloured cigarette case (complete with 5 Craven A cigarettes inside) and a similar Vesta Case.” There was no one of that name in Hong Kong by 8 December 1941, but I wonder if anyone recognizes the name from earlier years?
20I had an interesting email from Susan Wood, who kindly sent a photo of a plaque to the memory of Lieutenant Colonel Yale, commanding officer of the 1st Hong Kong Regiment, the Hong Kong & Singapore Royal Artillery. She notes: “I found your excellent and informative website while researching my local War memorial - Bryneglwys in Denbighshire, North Wales. Although not on the memorial a member of the Hong Kong and Singapore Artillery has a plaque in the church - John Corbet Love Yale - a member of the same Yale family as Elihu Yale, whose name graces the American University - Plas-yn-Ial, the family home, is within the boundaries of Bryneglwys.”
18 Douglas Crozier’s (HKVDC) granddaughter got in touch. Crozier’s wife and children were evacuees.
17Walking to work along Kennedy Road I noticed that some building work on the north side had improved the view in that direction. You can now look down on Ship Street in Wanchai, which has always interested me as it was the final front line. The view to the infamous ‘haunted house’ of Nam Koo Terrace had cleared enough to take a photo.
16 George Parkins’s (RN, Lisbon Maru) great niece got in touch.
14Today a Victorian 50 cents coin from 1891 turned up in the hills, apparently hit almost dead centre by a small piece of shrapnel (illustrated). Or possibly that’s the remains of some solder that attached it to a chain or similar?
13 I had a query today relating to Vincent Sorby of HKE who was killed in ‘The Battle of the Bus’ in North Point outside the power station in 1941. The village of Todwick in South Yorkshire is installing a new War Memorial, and Vincent’s brother Frederick William Dare Sorby was born there. He moved to Canada and was killed at the end of the Great War.
11 Herbert Ernest (Tommy) Brewer’s (HKRNVR, MTB escape) family contacted me. I hadn’t realised before that the Brewers were an established Hong Kong family. Tommy’s mother and father (Herbert Edney Brewer, Connie Brewer) had lived in Hong Kong too, with their daughters Mary and Peggy and another son, Peter (who was Peggy’s twin). Connie and the two girls moved back to the States before the war, though Herbert Edney’s and Peter’s movements are uncertain. Great Grandfather Walter William Brewer ran a bookstore in the Colony, but his wife died of rabies in 1892; their son Herbert’s first child, Doris, also died of rabies. Hong Kong was very different in those days… 11 Received an email from Michael Thomas whose father served in Hong Kong from 1936 to early 1939 with 8 Coast Regiment before returning to the UK to attend an anti-aircraft course thus missing the invasion. He mentioned that 8 Coast Regiment was originally known as 8 Heavy Brigade until it was renamed 8 Heavy regiment in 1938 and 8 Coast Regiment in 1940. Sometimes these old names still appear in wartime records. Michael himself lived in Hong Kong starting in 1956 when his father was posted back here post-war.
9Ian Bodie kindly sent a photo of his fathers and other police of the ‘Class of 38’. They are: Top Row: Sikh officer; Ken Bodie; Willie Watson; N Rennie; Alan CC Stewart; Alec Leslie; Tom Ross; Mackay Gillies; Sikh officer. Middle Row: David Fyffe; Jimmy Ferrier; Staff Instructor J Fell; James Cairns; Richardson Leslie: Barney Ross. Front Row: George Watt; J MacMillan; J Aitken; Sidney Dowman; Lundy Gordon. Alec Leslie was killed on 1 September 1950 in an incident in which a kidnapping suspect had barricaded himself in a village house in Ha Kwai Chung Village in Tsuen wan Division. Edmund Luscombe, who took command of the operation and had also been interned in Stanley, was killed in the same incident. According to Wally Scragg, Ken Bodie shot the suspect dead. A looter killed Richardson Leslie from Dundee (who was Eleanor Leslie’s brother) on 26 December 1941; his death is described by George Wright Nooth in his book, ‘Prisoner of the Turnip Heads’. Tom Ross from Dundee was to become Ken Bodie’s brother-in-law. 9 Among a number of interesting items that turned up in the hills today was a well-preserved Great War vintage compass (probably a Verner's pattern no. VIII). I suspect that these were still being used in Hong Kong in 1941.
7 I had an interesting email from Frank Newton who served in 1949 at the Matilda hospital in the RAMC during his National Service. He pointed out that the Royal Naval Hospital memorial stone outside came from the War Memorial Hospital, a point that I hadn’t grasped before (the Matilda Hospital used to be known as the Matilda & War Memorial Hospital). The old Royal Naval Hospital in Wanchai had been badly damaged during the war, and in 1946 they decided they needed a replacement. In 1949 the War Memorial Hospital re-opened as the new Royal Naval Hospital, and that must be where that stone came from. That War Memorial Hospital was a short walk away from the Matilda, and was knocked down perhaps 40 years ago.
5 Dave Deptford notes: “In DNW Sale of 25 -26 March at Lot 1514 appears the following medal group of five –1939-45, Pacific, Defence, War and Army LSGC - only last is named - attributed to Sgt Alfred Cooke, Military Police, captured 25.12.1941 at HK and later transferred to labouring at Omine nr Nagagsaki. Estimate is GBP160 -200.”
4Charles Collard kindly sent photos of a pocket knife that his father (also Charles Collard) and his friends kept secretly during internment. Two dog tags are attached, in the name of CPO W.H.A. Andrews DJX 163086. The reverse appears to have his HK POW number of 3852. This is odd, as in my records it is 5258. Bizarrely, the CWGC have him listed as “Andrews S, William Henry Austin” and with a different serial number, with a date of death of 22 March 1943. My records show that he was on the Lisbon Maru and died of acute pneumonia in Osaka #5D.
3 Arthur Sims’s (Army Educational Corps) grandson got in touch. His mother was also a Hong Kong evacuee. 3 Apparently the Heir Hunters TV series Lisbon Maru episode was broadcast today and acknowledged the ‘Tony Banham Collection’, which is about right as all I did was provide a couple of photos and some information so they could appear knowledgeable on the subject!
2 Philip Cracknell kindly solved the Sir Mark Young question (see last month) by showing that he was flown by the Japanese (together with his batman Waller) from Hong Kong to Shanghai. He found this detail in a BAAG document dated 21 November 1944. The information there was obtained from Commander Woolley RN who ‘recently escaped from a Japanese gaol on Shanghai. The source was a POW in the Woosung Camp in Feb 1942 when Sir Mark was brought into that camp’. 2 Shelia Stones let me know that a singer called Tom Hickcox has written a song about the Lisbon Maru. I managed to find a version on YouTube here.
1David Bellis has put recordings of an interview with Barbara Redwood on his site in two parts, here and here. 1 TK was kind enough to point out that Mabel Redwood’s book ‘It was Like This…’ describes the bombing of the Sikh temple by the Japanese (they lived next door, about where the Cosmo Hotel is now). So it appears it may have been hit more than once, which is also what EOD told me. He also included a photo of Happy Valley with Barbara Anslow’s block of flats at the top left. These were eventually replaced by the Cosmopolitan Hotel, the New China News Agency, and the Cosmo Hotel. The mosque would have been immediately to the block’s right.
March 1st, 2014 Update
Central Police Station (author), Charles Collard (courtesy Charles Collard), Mosque bomb site (author) Victory Parade, B&W and colour (courtesy Ron Rakusen), Japanese Tunnel (courtesy Martin Dewick) William Golding's MI9 Form (via COFEPOW), Mystery Camp (via Geoff Emerson), British water bottle and Japanese Arisaka muzzle cover (author)
With the many recent finds of ordnance culminating in this month's discovery of a huge bomb in a residential area, naturally the potential danger has been widely debated. In fact the majority of recent finds have been well off the beaten path and are generally no great threat, and it would be impractical to try and clear them all. However, perhaps a more prudent policy would be wise in the built up areas. In fact the parts of the city that were heavily fought over or bombed are relatively small, and within those areas much post-war development has already resulted in deep excavations that have effectively made them safe. However, in those parts where only small post-war buildings with shallow foundations previously stood (as in this most recent case) perhaps a compulsory deep scan in the German model would be a sensible precaution.
27 Charles Collard’s son (see 5th below) also got in touch kindly sending me a list of the fate of the crew of HMS Cicala kept by his father in camp. 27 I heard from Flame Television, the producers of ‘Heir Hunters’ who I helped slightly on a program related to the Lisbon Maru. They say: “We now have a confirmed transmission date for the new series of BBC1’s Heir Hunters. The series will start on Monday 3rd March 2014 at 9.15am on BBC1 and will be shown daily from Monday to Friday for four consecutive weeks. The episode you were involved in will be shown on 3rd March although I would advise that you check TV listings nearer the time as programmes can sometimes be postponed if, for example, there is a sudden important news story. It’s also worth reminding friends and family that should they miss an episode, for the next seven days they can always watch it again online using the BBC iplayer website. Just go here and type Heir Hunters in the search box.” 27 Ian McKay has very kindly been helping me match the first students at the Central British School (now KGV) when it re-opened in 1946, with lists of 1940 evacuees to Australia. It seems that a very high percentage of that year were returned evacuees.
25In researching the fate of an internee of the Japanese, Geoff Emerson has found a photo of a group at an internee camp - but we don’t know which camp it is. Can anyone help?
23A friend of the Higgs family, who were evacuated from Hong Kong to Australia in 1940, got in touch.
20 The South China Morning Post today ran a short article about Hong Kong’s wartime remains. 20 Luba Estes sent a very interesting email relating to apparently seeing Lisbon Maru survivors in Shanghai. Her father (Lieutenant Skvorzov, HKVDC) had been left behind in POW Camp when she and her mother moved to Shanghai, so naturally they hoped to get news from him from these POWs (as no news was forthcoming from the camp). She notes: “One day my mother came home agitated because she found out that there were prisoners from Hong Kong in transit and billeted at the YMCA building… She didn’t know what she would achieve by going to the location of the YMCA building, but thought that in case the prisoners had a chance to look out of a window, we would carry a Hong Kong basket with SKVORZOV in large letters on the lid. Before the Japanese occupation, most school children carried their books in these Hong Kong baskets with their names on the lid. We had such a basket with us in Shanghai. When we reached the YMCA we slowly walked along the somewhat narrow street (much like the street between the Salisbury Hotel - the old YMCA - and the Peninsula Hotel in HK). There were very few pedestrians and we walked on the other side of the street away from the windows. And yes, there was a row of very large windows with curtains hanging from a bar mid-window down. Right away, we could see the prisoners straining over the top of the curtain to look out. Perhaps one or two had been looking out and told the others who gathered to see us. My memory is that there could have been ten at the window, I can’t remember, there could have been more or maybe less. They definitely saw us. There were no smiles or any effort to wave to us. We couldn’t tell the condition that they were in as all we could see were their faces from chin up. They appeared to be talking to each other… and then, shaking their heads, as if to say… he is not here.” All I can think of is that these may have been the sick POWs referred to on the 17th below, but I had thought they were at a temporary hospital at Woosung. I used the COFEPOW facility mentioned on the 18th below (interesting how these things often come together!) and found the MI9 Interrogation Form of William Golding of that group, but it doesn’t explicitly mention the YMCA.
18 William Wilson’s (Royal Scots, LM) great granddaughter got in touch. Wilson survived the Lisbon Maru, but his marriage didn’t. He was one of those who returned home to find that his wife had presumed him dead, and had made other arrangements. 18 Jonathan Moffat sent a useful reminder of this excellent link on the COFEPOW page that kindly allows people to download MI9 Liberation Questionnaires. They’re not all there yet, but it’s a great start and a very useful service kindly provided by volunteers.
17 Arthur Barnes’ (Royal Artillery, LM) great nephew got in touch. Barnes was one of the sicker survivors of the Lisbon Maru who was held back at Shanghai while the others went to the Osaka area, eventually being sent to the Hakodate camps in northern Japan, via Korea. He notes: “When the men broke out from the hold and jumped over the side, Jimmy held onto a raft with the help of an American called Eddie. They managed to get to one of the islands helped by the Chinese. He was sent to Japan and to one of the camps. During the last year of the war he was at Hakodate#2 Akahira camp on Hokaido. Because he had a way with horses, he was put to work with the ponies in the coal mines. He survived the war and went to live at Portland in Dorset. He went to work for my grandfather who was married to his sister. When my grandfather retired in 1971, Jimmy took over the butcher business until he then retired. Despite what he had been through, he lived a long life and died a few years ago at the age of 91. He never talked much about the war except to me, but never went into any great detail.” The mention of an American is interesting (theoretically there were none on board, but of course some did serve in British forces). I am hoping to learn more.
15Danny Parrot’s daughter got in touch (see August 2013) to say that she has finished the write-up of her father’s experience on Hong Kong. She also kindly attached a photo (illustrated).
14 Ken Bodie’s (HK Police Force) son got in touch. 14 Craig Mitchell kindly gave me a British wartime water bottle and an Arisaka muzzle cover recently found in the hills.
12 I hear that Monia Talan's (from the HKVDC Reconnaissance Unit, Z Force, and a Chan Chak escaper) service dress uniform jacket is for sale.
11 Suzannah Linton will be belatedly launching her book on Hong Kong’s War Crime Trials on Friday March 28. The launch will start at 17.30 at the Centre for Rights and Justice at Chinese University (at their Central site in Bank of America Tower). Further details can be found here, and registration can be done here. 11 While browsing Hong Kong Government records online, I came across two large but very useful documents listing the Civil Establishment of 1939. This names every government worker and shows their role, starting date, years in service, etc. The 1940 version doesn’t seem to have survived, but the majority of those listed in 39 were still present when hostilities commenced.
10Ron Rakusen read my Short History of No 3 Coy HKVDC (which I wrote for the Royal Asiatic Society some five or six years back) and saw the photo of the 1946 Victory Parade that illustrated it. He then kindly sent me several photos scanned from a special edition of TODAY showing the Victory Parade on 8th June 1946. These appear to have been taken moments before the similar photo I used in the Short History. Interestingly, they are in colour – but the colour to me looks like it was added by hand at some point. He also had some black and white images, again similar to ones I was given by 3 Coy families, of the Hong Kong contingent in Hyde Park (his father is second from the left in the front row seated on the ground in the latter, and is the bespectacled gentleman in the front left of the colour photo). Ron would be very grateful if anyone could provide better quality images of the event in which his father could be seen more clearly.
7 My usual walk to work was blocked today at Queen’s Road East and I had to take an interesting diversion through the early morning market in Wanchai Road. The reason for the road closure turned out to be an American 1,000 pound GP bomb (generally reported as a 2,000 pounder in the papers and on video) discovered in the construction of the foundations of the new Emperor International hotel tower between the Cosmo hotel and the Sikh Temple. I’ve walked past that bomb twice a day for around ten years! In the end Jimmy and his EOD team cut it open and burned the TNT on the spot. I have a 1945 photo of the Sikh Temple showing what I had guessed might be damage from a small bomb, but on reflection I believe that what we can see is not the effects of blast, but kinetic damage from that unexploded bomb simply flying through the structure to land and embed itself deep underground next door. I’ve done one of my not-terribly-good then & now mashups to show what I mean. Apparently the rear fuse had been struck but failed to function.
5 Charles Walter Collard’s grandson (see November) kindly sent a photo of his grandfather returning to the UK on a ship. Although undated, I suspect it was taken at the end of the war.
2Walking back from Central today I happened to look up at the old Central Police HQ which is currently under restoration. Some of it is no longer under wraps, and I have to admit it looks pretty good. It was of course bombed by the Japanese in 1941. Geoffrey Wilson who was there at the time, once wrote to me from his retirement home in Portugal saying: "A number of police officers of various ranks were killed or wounded; my office was set on fire and I was very lucky to get out alive with minor injuries."
1 I’ve been having a long correspondence with Michael Hurst in Taiwan to try to establish how Sir Mark Young and his batman Waller got to Taiwan in September 1942. We’re stumped at the moment. They were not on the ‘Special Draft’ that took Maltby and the other senior officers and batmen. We would be grateful for any information. 1 A party in the hills today found various items including British helmet remains, two buttons not yet identified (but one of which look like a Canadian Grenadier Guards button), two and a half British water bottles, and a new Japanese tunnel. 1 T.K. Wong and his brother reckon the original Japanese photograph in last month’s mash-up was tampered with to some degree having been taken from the intersection of Des Voeux Road and Queen Victoria Street (whereas to match the southern side, I had to take my modern version from the intersection of Des Voeux Road and Pottinger Street).
February 1st, 2014 Update
Des Voeux Road then and now, Queen's Road Ordnance Stores (both author), Western Independent (courtesy Bill Lake) 1940 building, Bowen Road Hospital guard room, Wong Nai Chung Gap shelter (all author) Attack on Wong Nai Chung Gap AA position (Japanese war artist), the hill behind today (author), Base of Japanese water bottle (courtesy Craig Mitchell)
This is very much a seasonal study. Everything heats up in November as relatives of those in Hong Kong during the war are reminded of the December invasion and their family members’ experiences, and culminates in December itself where each day brings tens of emails and every weekend (or so it seems) a memorial event of some kind. Then January slows down again – unless there’s a special Second World War anniversary matching the one we’re witnessing this year with the Great War. So the year has started quietly; by the middle of the month I had only received a single photo that I wanted to put on this site, whereas in a typical month I will have to choose from a hundred or more. But the second half seemed to speed up, perhaps because of the release of ‘The Railway Man’ and the general interest in twentieth century conflicts thanks to the Great War anniversary.
31Couldn’t resist the nice weather and quiet New Year streets so I went to Des Voeux Road to try and get one of my ‘then and now’ shots of Japanese and Indian troops on patrol. Trouble is that I spent such a long time waiting for a tram to come into the right position that I ended up getting the angle a bit wrong. I’m not very good at these! However, at the same time I noticed on the other side of the road a 1940 building (rather kindly labelled as such) that for some reason I had never seen before. 31 Finally finished my Short History of the Hong Kong Chinese Regiment and sent it off. 31 Philip Cracknel kindly passed on some details he’d found about B Coy Middlesex pillboxes. Here, for example, is the equipment list for PB30 (which is still in place): 2 Machine Guns, 1 Thompson SMG, 6 Rifles, 2 pistols, 10,000 .303 rounds (500 tracer), 1,000 Tommy Gun rounds .45, 84 Webley .45 rounds,12 Grenades.
29 Today there was yet another find of ordnance up in the hills, as shown in this link (Chinese language) kindly supplied by Tom Li. There must be thousands of the things up there, and they’re not getting any friendlier with age. 29 Hugh Farmer got in touch, showcasing his very interesting website about Hong Kong’s industrial history. There are several articles covering the war time period, and he’d be keen to hear from anyone who could add more detail or point him at further sources. 29 Ron Rakusen notes that he is very keen to trace Anthony Witham, who used to live in Surrey, and is the son of Hong Kong’s pre-war ‘Tea Advisor’: “I am really keen to understand the role and status of a Tea Advisor to the Chinese Government as I have several envelopes that were from P.E Witham to relatives in the UK or which passed through his hands as an unofficial ‘courier’ between Shanghai and HK to other countries.”
28 I saw a note on the FEPOW Community from someone saying: “Last year, after several years researching into my father’s time as a POW in Japan, and somewhat to my surprise, I found myself applying for and being accepted onto a full time PhD in Sociology and History at the University of Essex. My research focuses on the life experiences of the children of British Far East Prisoners of War. When I first began to read around the subject, I was rather taken aback to discover hardly any academic research into the topic. For me, this is an important story, and one very much worth telling. Through face-to-face interviews, I aim to explore how the fathers’ experiences have impacted on the children, from early memories through to the present day. Now in my second term, I am beginning to plan ahead for the interviews, most of which will need to occur during the second year. So, if your father was a British FEPOW and you are interested in taking part, then I’d really like to hear from you. Later on, I’ll send out a briefing sheet giving more details of the research to those who have expressed an interest in getting involved. If you do think you could help me with this, I am sure you’d find it interesting.” If any children of POWs would like to be involved, please contact me and I’ll put you in touch with the researcher. Clearly this is a mature student!
27Michael Hurst in Taiwan is researching the Gosanos and Kotwalls, and also the ‘Special draft’ of Hong Kong senior POWs who left for Taiwan (initially) on 4 August 1942. As far as I can see I never identified the vessel they travelled in. Anyone happen to know?
26 Bill Lake kindly sent me the first two pages of ‘The Western Independent’ of August 19, 1945, which describes the logistics of the Japanese surrender in great detail. Neither of us were surprised that although it mentioned China, Korea, Singapore, Burma, Russia, and Japan itself, there wasn’t a single word about Hong Kong!
25Alan Burnett’s (Royal Engineers) nephew got in touch, lamenting how little has been written about the RE in Hong Kong (which is very true).
23 Several people were kind enough to let me know that Maximo Cheng (4 Bty HKVDC, Chindits) passed away today. I hadn’t seen him for several years. As far as we know, he was the last HKVDC man alive in Hong Kong, and the last of the 128 Hong Kong Volunteers who originally joined the Chindits. 23 Peter Osman’s (HMS Moth, LM) family got in touch via Annemarie Evans. 23 Fred Ambrose’s (Royal Marines, LM) nephew got in touch.
22Harry Lacey’s (HKVDC) family got in touch via Irene Dowling. His wife and three children were in Stanley. Two of the children were twins born in 1941, who grew up to be famous martial artists (as reported in July 2012).
20 Several people, including Martin Heyes, were kind enough to send me obituaries of Hiroo Onoda, the last Japanese soldier to surrender after the Second World War. I told my kids the story, and they were amazed. 20 Walking back along Bowen Road I photographed the always-atmospheric ruins of the guard room of the old Bowen Road Hospital, and also the Queen's Road Ordnance Stores. The latter were rebuilt at great expense a few years ago by the Asia Society, but I have never seen them being used.
19 A walker (I believe I know who) found a Japanese 150mm shell in the hills today, which EOD blew up rather spectacularly. The pieces of shrapnel they collected afterwards show just why these were (and obviously still are) so dangerous.
18Quite regularly I get calls out of the blue asking me to take people for historical walks around Hong Kong, and I politely decline and point the requestor to various colleagues who do such walks commercially. However, Larry Summers, ex President of Harvard University, was around today and I very much enjoyed taking him, his son, and a few of their friends around Wong Nai Chung and Black’s Link. While at Wong Nai Chung I noticed that the steps leading up from the AA Site opposite Park View had been redone, and quite a lot of the vegetation had been cleared. This enables a better view of the half-destroyed block at the summit of that little hill, which makes an interesting comparison with the official Japanese War Artist’s painting.
17Henry Langley sent me two very interesting letters from Hong Kong Dockyard staff to his father just after the end of the war. One, from On Ah Lit of C.C. (Chief Constructors’?) Sawmill, H.M. Dockyard, reads in part: “As regards my old comrades in the Yard, some of them have died during occupation including Mak Pak and Yee Poi. Tang Ping Nam is back in the Yard as a store-drawer. Your former amah Ah Toi has not been traced so far, but I have not given up hope of getting in touch with her, and if she is found I shall convey to her your kind regards. I am sorry to hear that you have lost your lovely home and particularly your junk, and I hope I can make a new junk for you when you next come to Hongkong. I am looking forward to the time when we can take Chinese chow together – ‘HO HO SIK NEY’ (very good to eat).” Henry was unaware that his father had once owned a junk! 17 Ron Brooks confirmed that he has now taken delivery of his father’s Long Service and Good Conduct medal (illustrated. see last month).
15 I passed Dennis Clarke, the photo of his father – one of the four policemen in the photo last month - and he replied: “Yes, he is in the left and Donald Brown in the car. They were very good friends. Donald Brown retired from the Police in the 50s and moved to New Zealand where he passed away a few years ago.” 15 John Pelly Murphy’s (HKVDC) niece got in touch. She pointed me to a website that mentioned her uncle. I hadn't seen it before (though I corresponded with Francis Crabb for a few years - I think he's still around - and Arthur Gomes was a friend). I was very familiar with the Byrne company when I first lived in Hong Kong, but didn't realise the wartime connection.
14 Robert Louis Neubronner’s (Royal Engineers) granddaughter got in touch. Neubronner’s wife, son, and two daughters were evacuated to Melbourne. Mr Neubronner died in Osaka #2B (Kobe) and the family would be very grateful for a photograph of him if anyone has one.
12 Today I did the last walk of the season with the Hong Kong Club – the infamous Mount Nicholson and Mount Cameron walk that follows the path of West Brigade’s retreat from Wong Nai Chong Gap to Wanchai Gap over the mountains. With 22 people (a handful of whom didn’t make it to the top of the peaks) I reckon it was the second biggest assault on Mount Cameron since 1941 – the previous record being held by the slightly large group from the club that I took up there three years ago. One of the attendees was the nephew of William Lambert of Number 1 Company, who was lost on Christmas Day 1941.
10While researching a member of Hong Kong’s Shanghai Evacuation Committee of 1937 – Dr Thomas Walter Ware – I found this very interesting link, according to which he escaped from occupied Hong Kong! The only problem is that I thought I had researched all the non-Chinese escapers, but had never come across him before. Brian Edgar has a few theories, and Elizabeth Ride has a note that makes us think the story is probably true, but does anyone else know about him?
7Gareth notes, again in connection with the shelters of Stanley Gap Road that I mentioned last month: “I think they may be the bunkers referred to as the ‘Stone Hill Shelters’ in the RR of C War Diary, and their Battalion HQ during the late stages of the Battle of HK. In favour of this possibility is the fact that they're close to Stone Hill, although (I think) actually on the Stanley Mound side of the stream separating Stanley Mound from Stone Hill. If they are the Stone Hill Shelters, they're the scene of the incident described under the heading ‘General Remarks’ in the RR of C War Diary for 22-12-1941. To quote: ‘An incident occurred at Battalion HQ during the afternoon, which bears recording. At 1530 hours, a sniper who had crawled down the ravine between ‘D’ and ‘B’ Companies fired at point blank range and hit Rifleman Labeouf who was unloading a truck on the road in front of Battalion HQ wounding him seriously. Sgt. D'Avignon seized a Tommy gun and after him firing several bursts but no trace of him was found’.” I checked with Rob Weir who confirms that these shelters match the map reference of the RRoC’s B Coy HK on Stone Hill. Very interesting! 7 Craig Mitchell reports finding a well-preserved Japanese water canteen up in the hills.
6Ron Taylor (HK) kindly let me know that Joan Crawford died on Friday (3 January), aged 97. He notes: “Joan, you will recall, was the one who reported the Battle in the Bus in King’s Road. She was in Stanley with her mother and father (Pte Ferdinand F Duckworth - Hughes Group and Manager at Hong Kong Electric) and wife of Sgt George William Kenneth Crawford (Sham Shiu Po).” 6 Jill Fell noted my mention of the Mogra family in last year's diary. She notes: “my father, Charles Reginald Warren, told me that his father, C.E. Warren (1872-1923) was great friends with E.R. Mogra and that they used to go on jade collecting expeditions to the mainland together. I believe that the Wesleyan minister, the Rev. Webb Anderson, used to go too.” We’d still like to learn more about the Mogras.
5 Rob Weir contacted me about the Shelters off Stanley Gap Road (see last month). He notes: “there were at least 7 originally, their demolition is of recent years. Originally built as a Company HQ, Wallis tried them as a Battalion HQ but found them unsatisfactory and moved to the Prison Officers Club. There were 16 shelters in the general area, including the three at Headland Road junction and some above the road just near there. I don’t know if the heavy duty toilet block at the junction with Chung Hom Kok Road classifies as a Shelter.” It’s surprising that the damage I reported was recent, as something has cut through very thick reinforced concrete and the place looks like it’s been bombed!
4Kwong Chi Man contacted me about a book he’s writing on Hong Kong’s Chinese soldiers. This will include the Hong Kong Volunteers in Burma, who I am also studying at the moment for my Short History of the Hong Kong Chinese Regiment – several of whose members joined the Chindits.
January 1st, 2014 Update
Burford / Lisbon Maru memorial (courtesy Anita Jones), Donald Brown and friends (courtesy Sue Harding), Hong Kong wall memorial (courtesy Alfred Lai) Lee Gardens Theatre (courtesy The Lee Gardens), HKVDC Signals (courtesy Elizabeth Ride), Reed brothers' photos (courtesy Henry Ching) Canadian lighter (courtesy Craig Mitchell), Stanley Bunkers (author), Raindle platter (courtesy eBay)
We spent last Christmas in Sydney, and this Christmas – for a family wedding – we visited Melbourne. It’s odd to see the suburb names that are so familiar from studying Hong Kong’s evacuees – Frankston, Brighton, St Kilda (where I got quite sunburnt the day after Boxing Day) – and see the majority of houses there just as they were in 1940. In Hong Kong we are so used to buildings being replaced every thirty or forty years that we forget that the rest of the world is somewhat more sustainable.
31Ian Brown is still trying to discover more about the Holland family (Jessie Holland was the nurse killed on the last ferry to leave Kowloon at the time of the Japanese invasion in December 1941; her husband Adam Holland was an inspector of buildings in Hong Kong who was killed in the air raid on Stanley Camp in January 1945. They lived at Stanley Terrace, Quarry Bay, at some point and had moved to 6 Minden Avenue in 1941. Jessie Holland's brother, Joe McDonald, worked with Asiatic Petroleum Company in Hong Kong; he and his wife Elizabeth returned to the UK at the outbreak of the war. Ian notes: “I wonder if anyone with a WW2 Hong Kong connection may recall anything of the offspring of Adam and Jessie Holland - namely Isobel Morrison Holland (born 1915), Alistair Wilson Holland (1917) and Joan McDonald Holland (1920). They were born in Scotland and grew up in Hong Kong in the late 1920's and 30's… An A.W. Holland born in 1917 sailed on the Accra from Liverpool to Nigeria in 1949, possibly in connection with work in the oil industry, and this may have been Alistair Holland. He may have been employed in the oil industry like his uncle.”
30Frode notes: “I am very happy to say that one of the biggest and oldest Danish newspapers, ‘Berlingske Tidende’ published the results of my research of Kaj Soren Kjaer exactly 100 years after his birth – 22 November 2013. The newspaper also made an interview of me on the background of my article.” (see October 3). Frode also noted that the article triggered reactions from Kaj Soren Kjaer’s relatives and kind letters from other readers. In one of these he received a copy of a report made 1944 by Mr Mogens Pagh, who was the head of the East Asiatic Company’s branch office in Hong Kong in 1941. This showed that Kaj Soren Kjaer (Kaj Søren Kjær), was one out of three posted young Danish men, who all volunteered. The two other were Kurt Wilkens and Jorgen (Jørgen) Vibe Christensen. Wilkens, like Kjaer, was killed (with 1 Bty in the defence of Stanley), but Vibe Christensen became a POW and was released in 1945. 29 Jill Fell was asking what the minimum and maximum age for the HKVDC was. Henry Ching answered: 18 to 50.
24 Ron Brooks has been able to obtain his father’s (Master Gunner C.F. Brooks, who was lost on the Lisbon Maru) pre-war Long Service Good Conduct (LSGC) medal. The person who had it is a regular on these pages and located Ron to offer it to him.
23 I was cheered to receive Christmas greetings from ex-Signalman Jack Mitchell today (see the name list for Dec 21). I hadn’t realised till today that his wife is Hong Kong evacuee Zena Mansell, whose father was in the PWD and was interned in Stanley Camp. 23 The photos I took at the Lee Gardens exhibition last month turned out quite well – especially one of an aerial shot of Causeway Bay that I guess was taken shortly post-war. The building in the centre is the old Lee Gardens Theatre, and the bare triangle behind it is part of today’s Times Square.
22 Dave Deptford was kind enough to send me an eBay link to a presentation salver to RQMS W. Raindle, Middlesex, who was one of the many senior NCOs to be posted away from Hong Kong in mid-1941 before the invasion. It is signed by around 44 of his colleagues, which gives an interesting opportunity to compare the fates of those who stayed versus those who left (K Killed, LM Lisbon Maru, HK Hong Kong): Ayres, 6201876 Sergeant Frederick Henry Edward (K LM) Baker, 6199285 Sergeant Thomas F (K HK) Ball, 4125363 Lance Sergeant Ernest Algernon (Left HK. K Syria) Bayly, Lance Sergeant Thomas (Survived) Bean, Sergeant W (Left HK. Survived) Bedward, 61988459 Sergeant Benjamin Harry (K HK) Blackman, Lance Sergeant R (Left HK. Survived) Bond, 6196027 Colour Sergeant James William (K LM) Burgess, 6200152 Sergeant James (K HK) Burkitt, Lance Sergeant R (Left HK. Survived) Burrell, Sergeant Alfred F (Survived) Castle, 6197065 Sergeant Thomas R M (K LM) Challis, Warrant Officer Second Class Robert (Survived) Chaplin, Sergeant R (Survived) Crowley, 6198993 Sergeant Patrick Joseph (K LM) Donovan, Platoon Sergeant Major F (Left HK. Survived) Farrow, Warrant Officer First Class H, MBE (Left HK. Survived) Finnis, Sergeant W (Left HK. Survived) Freshwater, Lance Sergeant C (Survived) Hale, Colour Sergeant Percy (Survived) Harvey, 6198273 Sergeant Sidney (K HK) Holdford, Lance Sergeant Charles (Survived) Jeffree, Drum Major George (Survived) Kifford, 4186777 Warrant Officer First Class Bandmaster William E.J. (K HK) Little, 6195113 Colour Sergeant John T (K LM) Lomas, Lance Sergeant Robert G (Survived) McDavitt, Lance Sergeant T (Left HK. Survived) Moody, Sergeant Alfred (Survived) Nayler, 6199294 Colour Sergeant Herbert Edgar (K LM) Overy, Sergeant Richard (Survived) Paterson, Warrant Officer Second Class E (Left HK. Survived) Parry, Lance Sergeant F (Left HK. Survived) Poulter, Sergeant William (Survived) Powell, Lance Sergeant R (Left HK. K Salerno) Priddy, Colour Sergeant L (Left HK. Survived) Quick, 3708660 Sergeant James Albert (Left HK. K Burma) Ramsey, 6196028 Warrant Officer Second Class James Robert (K LM) Iches, 6198989 Warrant Officer Third Class Jack Ernest (K LM) Robins, Lance Sergeant George (Survived) Soden, Lance Sergeant Edwin (Survived) Sturdy, 6201477 Sergeant Patrick Joseph (K LM) Tattam, Lance Sergeant George (Survived) Tibble, 6194081 Warrant Officer Second Class William Ernest Joseph (K LM) Ure, Lance Sergeant William (Survived) Of the 31 who stayed, 15 died, but of the 13 who left, only 3 died. Despite those who left Hong Kong seeing action all over the world, leaving was by far the safer option.
21 Sue Beard and George MacDonell were kind enough to send me a copy of A Dog Named Gander. As the photographs in the book attest, Gander was a really massive hound, and one can understand the story of pilots who - seeing him from above – would report to the Gander control tower: “Bear on the Runway!” 21 Elizabeth Ride sent a fascinating photo of the HKVDC Corps Signals. We’ve identified the majority as follows: Back row: Walters (Shanghai), Signalman Conrad Semmelmann, Rose, McNider, Rogers, Warnock, Signalman James King, Captain Arthur Braude, Sergeant Robert Meadows, CSM Richard Rathmell, Second Lieutenant Alan Coppin, Signalman Brendan Wilson, Signalman William Gegg, Carr, Signalman Thomas Suiter Middle row: Borinevitch (sp?), May, Carson, Lance Corporal Lyall Glendinning, Barnes, Warnock, Cock, Carson, Signalman Cedric Salter, Lance Corporal Herbert Fountain, Signalman Norman Smith, Signalman Ivor Johnson, Walker, Signalman John (Jack) Mitchell, Warren, Sergeant Neville Booker. Front row: Jimmy Yee, Tan, S.B. Tam, Wong Kam Piu, ‘Frenchy’ Tcheng, Francisco Chan, Yip, Ed Eu, Kylum Yee, Lance Corporal Willie Eu, Billy Poy.
20Charles McCormick’s (HKVDC) niece got in touch. Her extended family (de Linde, Compton, Hetherington, Moore, Price, McColm, McCormick, Boyd, Mesny, King, Bumphrey, Craig-Martin, and Marshall) were spread around the civilian internment camps in Shanghai, including Pootung, Lungwha, Yu Yuen Road, and Yangchow C.
16 Jackie Ward kindly sent me a newspaper photo of Ian Gray, Royal Scots (illustrated) who was on board the Lisbon Maru.
15Anita Jones let me know that the Burford / Lisbon Maru plaque has now been put in place at the NMA. She kindly sent me a photo. 15 And on a related topic, Jim Huse was kind enough to let me known the sad news that Stoker Douglas Charles Stimson, Lisbon Maru survivor from HMS Thracian, passed away on the ninth of this month in Bournemouth.
13Geoffrey Emerson let me know that the Director of the Hong Kong Observatory is very keen on the history of the Observatory. Some months ago, thanks to Patricia Lim's fine book, he discovered that Charles Jeffries, the Observatory’s Director in the 1930s, is buried in Happy Valley - he died in early 1941. The headstone is in very poor condition and he would like to see about having it cleaned – but that would require permission from a relative. However, Jeffries' daughter Sheila married W. A. Mackinlay who was killed on 24 December 1941 (and is buried in Stanley) and after the war she married policeman Lancelot Searle. As I am in contact with Searle’s son, we were able to make a connection and hopefully the stone will now be restored.
12 Donald Brown’s (HKPF) family got in touch, sending a very interested photo of his in his car, together with fellow policemen Goscombe Goddard Clarke, Alf Brittain, and one unknown, believed taken outside a sand-bagged Tsim Tsa Tsui police station in 1941. Clarke’s son Dennis was born in Stanley Camp and retired to Macau a few years ago after a successful career managing Hong Kong’s Conrad Hotel.
11Joannes Tsang put quite a few photos on the web of the 7 December 2013 service at the Hong Kong Memorial Wall in Ottawa to commemorate the anniversary of the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong.
10Craig Mitchell reports finding a Canadian Ronson lighter up in the hills, together with the metal remnants from a gas mask case, and a strange rectangle of glass of about 4 by 5 inches. Possibly a heliograph? A Parker 1930s Streamlined Duofold Senior pen also turned up in the same area a few weeks earlier.
7Today, for around ten minutes, I joined presenter Cruzanne Macalister on RTHK Radio 3 to talk about Christmas 1941 as part of a series about Hong Kong’s Christmases past. 7 Alfred Lai kindly sent me a link entitled: “WWII Canadian Veteran Sgt Major George McDonnell talked of the bravery of Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps on YouTube”. 7 Brian Edgar notes: “Robert Hammond's book Bondservants of the Japanese is now available free online. It describes his family's time in Kowloon during the fighting and then in Stanley until the American repatriation. Try googling 'full bondservants Hammond voice' - when I did so it was the fourth on the results page. This is a link to that results page.” And: “Allman was an American lawyer from Shanghai stuck in HK during the attack. After the repatriation he became head if the Far Eastern Bureau of the OSS (Don [Ady’s] dad's boss?) and later worked for the CIA. His memoir Shanghai Lawyer is now available free online. Chapter 1 is about his work as legal adviser to the Camp Council and Chapter 18 is the best account I know of the work of the American volunteer drivers during the fighting (and of the controversial Bill Hunt, who was to become the leader of the Americans in Stanley).”
6 Bernard Oscar Alastair Thomson’s (2/14 Punjabis) nephew got in touch. 6 A researcher notes: “I am currently working on a project relating to awards of the Military Cross to Air Force officers in World War Two. This is quite a select band in that only 84 such awards were made. Two of these awards were to Air Force officers who escaped from Hong Kong and through China to India. As you know one was a New Zealander, Pilot Officer Eddie Crossley, and his exploits are well documented in the book ‘Bridge with Three Men’. I have limited information on the other officer, Flying Officer Norman Lee Baugh. I have been able to establish that he was from Sheffield and that he was an ex Halton apprentice in the 21st intake. I believe that he may have been an equipment officer with the Station Flight at Kai Tak. He was killed on the 31st of January 1943 when the Dakota of No. 31 Squadron in which he was a passenger crashed while flying ‘the Hump’ and Baugh is commemorated on the Singapore Memorial. Like Crossley, Baugh escaped form Hong Kong with two army officers, a Major Munro of the Royal Artillery and Captain Ivan Bernard Trevor of the H.K.V.D.C. Both Crossley and Baugh were gazetted with the Military Cross on the same day and I believe that Baugh escaped the night before Crossley and his two companions.” I will be providing him with Baugh’s unpublished escape notes, which were kindly given to me by Monro’s family.
4Craig Mitchell notes that he: “was on Mt Cameron last week and found a really interesting Japanese Pillbox with a small tunnel down the centre and then leading off under the hill. Most unusual. I have put the account on Gwulo with photos.”
2 In response to last month’s request, Henry Ching kindly sent photos of the four deceased Reed brothers from the school magazine ‘Steps’ December 1947 issue. Henry also sent the latest three of his Occasional Papers featuring HKVDC members interned in Stanley rather than as POWs, the 1943 release of Asian POWs, and the internment of civilians. All these as usual can be seen on the RHKRNSW website.
1 I started the month by taking the Hong Kong Club walkers around Stanley, but arrived a bit early and asked my taxi driver to drop me off near the start of the Wilson Trail where it comes off the hills onto Stanley Gap Road. Just east of there, north of the road, I had often noticed (from the top of a double decker bus) a Splinter-Proof shelter that I had never investigated. I was surprised to find that it wasn’t alone. It was in a line of three or four – hard to be sure as the other ones appeared to have been hit by very heavy shells, possibly 9.2 inch. I didn’t have time for more than a quick look, but it would be worth another one. The walk itself went well, with everyone very impressed with the museum at the ever-helpful St Stephen’s College who kindly gave us permission to enter the grounds and opened the museum for us.